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History of LST - 248 - 295 - History

History of LST - 248 - 295  - History

LST - 248 - 295

LST-248 through LST - 260

LST - 248 through LST-260 contracts were cancelled on 16 September 1942.

LST - 261

LST - 261 was laid down on 7 September 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 23 January 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Harry F. Snyder; and commissioned on 22 May 1943. During World War 11, LST-261 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. She was decommissioned on 22 February 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 28 March 1946. On 10 November 1947, she was sold to the Biloxi Boat Wrecking Co., of Biloxi, Miss., for scrapping. LST-261 earned one battle star for World War IT service.

LST - 262

LST - 262 was laid down on 7 September 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 13 February 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Oscar Seidel; and commissioned on 15 June 1943. During World War 11, LST-262 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the movement of Convoy UGS-36 in April 1944 and the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. She was decommissioned on 14 January 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 June 1946. On 9 December 1947, she was sold to N. Block & Co., of Norfolk, Va., for scrapping. LST-262 earned two battle stars for World War IT service.

LST - 263

LST - 263 was laid down on 7 September 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 27 February 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Charles G. Baumgartner; and commissioned on 30 June 1943. During World War II, LST-263 was assigned to the European theater and participated in Convoy UGS-27 in April 1944 and the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. She was decommissioned on 29 May 1946 and assigned to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. On 1 July 1955, the ship was redesignated Benton County (LST-263) after nine counties of the United States. She was struck from the Navy list on 1 November 1958. LST-263 earned two battle stars for World War IT service.

LST - 264

LST - 264 was laid down on 21 September 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 13 March 1943; sponsored by Mrs. James Dunn; and commissioned on 16 July 1943, Lt. R. W. Dale, Jr., USNR, in command. During World War IT, LST-264 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. She was decommissioned on 11 January 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 June 1946. On 23 April 1948, she was sold to the Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., of Newport News, Va., for conversion to non-self-propelled mercantile operation. LST-264 earned one battle star for World War IT service.

LST - 265

LST - 265 was laid down on 31 October 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 24 April 1943; sponsored by Miss Irene Louise Martin; and commissioned on 27 July 1943, Lt. George F. Sparks, USNR, in command. During World War IT, LST-265 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the following operations: Convoy UGS-36-April 1944 Elba and Pianosa landings-June 1944 Invasion of southern France-August and September 1944 LST-265 was decommissioned on 11 December 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 3 January 1946. On 20 February 1948, she was sold to Excello Corp., of New Haven, Conn., for conversion to merchant service. LST-265 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 266

LST - 266 was laid down on 11 November 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 16 *May 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Joseph B. Barnwell; and commissioned on 4 August 1943. During World War II, LST-266 was assigned to the European theater and participated in Convoy UGS-26 in April 1944 and the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. She was decommissioned on 25 June 1947 and assigned to the Atlantic Reserve Fleet. On 1 July 1955, she was redesignated Benzie County (LST-266) after a county in Michigan. The ship was struck from the Navy list on 1 November 1958. LST-266 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 267

LST - 267 was laid down on 21 November 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 6 June 1943; sponsored by Mrs. D. L. See; and commissioned on 9 August 1943. During World War II, LST-267 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Capture and occupation of Saipan--June and July 1944 Capture and occupation of Tinian-July 1944 Capture and occupation of southern Palau Islands - September and October 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-March through June 1945 Following the war, LST-267 performed occupation duty in the Far East and saw service in China until January 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 25 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 July that same year. On 24 September 1947, the ship was sold to William E. Skinner for scrapping. LST-267 earned five battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 268

LST - 268 was laid down on 26 November 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 18 June 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Ward Powell; and commissioned on 19 August 1943. During World War II, LST-268 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro AtollsFebruary 1944 Tinian capture and occupation-July 1944 Capture and occupation of southern Palau Islands - September and October 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-March through June 1945 Following the war, LST-268 was redesignated LSTH-268 on 15 September 1945, and she performed occupation duty in the Far East until early February 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 16 February 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 31 October 1947. On 24 March 1948, she was sold to the Consolidated Shipbuilding Corp., of Morris Heights, N.Y., for scrapping. LSTH-268 earned five battle stars for World War II service as LST-268.

LST - 269

LST - 269 was laid down on 28 December 1942 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 4 July 1943; sponsored by Mrs. J. Graham; and commissioned on 27 August 1943, Lt. F. C. Helm, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-269 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Hollandia operation-April 1944 Capture and occupation of Saipan-June and July 1944 Leyte landings-October 1944 Nasugbu at Manila Bay-January 1945 Following the war, LST-269 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early February 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 7 February 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 23 December 1947. On 28 May 1948, she was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., of Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping. LST-269 earned four battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 270

LST - 270 was laid down on 13 January 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 18 July 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Seagraves; and commissioned on 8 September 1943, Lt. 0. Barber in command. During World War II, LST-270 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro AtollsJanuary and February 1944 Hollandia operation-April 1944 Capture and occupation of Guam-July 1944 Leyte landings-October 1944 LST-270 was sold on 12 May 1950. LST-270 earned four battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 271

LST - 271 was laid down on 21 January 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 25 July 1943; sponsored by Mrs. DeGraaf; and commissioned on 1 September 1943. During World War II, LST-271 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro AtollsJanuary and February 1944 Capture and occupation of Saipan-June and July 1944 Tinian capture and occupation-July 1944 Capture and occupation of southern Palau IslandsSeptember and October 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 LST-271 returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 22 April 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 5 June 1946. On 15 April 1948, she was sold to the Basalt Rock Co., Inc., of Napa, Calif., for scrapping. LST-271 earned five battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 272

LST - 272 was laid down on 9 February 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 1 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. P. Gerrese; -and commissioned on 17 September 1943, Lt. Heinrich Heine, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-272 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro AtollsJanuary and February 1944 Occupation of Eniwetok Atoll-February and March 1944 Capture and occupation of Saipan-June and July 1944 Tinian capture and occupation-July 1944 Capture and occupation of southern Palau Islands - September and October 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 16 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 25 September 1946. On 5 April 1948, she was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., of Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping. LST-272 earned five battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 273

LST - 273 was laid down on 24 February 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 8 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. H. McComb; and commissioned on 24 September 1943. During World War II, LST-273 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations Marshall Islands operation: (a) Occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro Atolls- January and February 1944 (b) Occupation of Eniwetok Atoll-February 1944 Capture and occupation of Saipan-June and July 1944 Tinian capture and occupation-July 1944 Capture and occupation of southern Palau Islands - September and October 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-April 1945 Following the war, LST-273 performed occupation duty in the Far East until late October 1945. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 12 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 8 October 1946. On 3 November 1947, she was sold to the Hugo Neu Steel Products Corp., of New York, N.Y. LST-273 earned six battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 274

LST - 274 was laid down on 11 March 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 15 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Salmon; and commissioned on 28 September 1943, Lt. Russell E. Sard, Jr., USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-274 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro Atolls in January and February 1944 and the capture and occupation of Saipan in June and July 1944. She was decommissioned on 6 May 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 23 June 1947. On 29 June 1948, she was sold to the Alexander Shipyard, Inc., of New Orleans, La., and converted for merchant service. LST-274 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 275

LST - 275 was laid down on 22 April 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 22 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. N. Walker; and commissioned on 5 October 1943. During World War II, LST-275 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the capture and occupation of Saipan in June and August 1944 and the Tinian capture and occupation in July and August 1944. Following the war, LST-275 performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-February 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 16 August 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 25 September 1946. LST-275 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 276

LST - 276 was laid down on 10 May 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 29 August 1943; sponsored by Mrs. S. Ragland; and commissioned on 11 October 1943. During World War II, LST-276 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro AtollsFebruary 1944 Hollandia operation-April 1944 Capture and occupation of Guam-July 1944 Capture and occupation of southern Palau IslandsSeptember and October 1944 Lingayen Gulf landing-January 1945 Following the war, LST-276 was redesignated LSTH-276 on 15 September 1945. She performed occupation duty in the Far East until mid-February 1946. The tank landing ship returned to the United States and was transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service on 31 March 1952 for service as LST-276 (T-LST-276) until she was struck from the Navy list on 10 June 1973 and sold. LST-276 earned five battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 277

LST - 277 was laid down on 31 May 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 5 September 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Guernsey; and commissioned on 24 October 1943. During World War II, LST-277 was assigned to the Asiatic- Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Occupation of Kwajalein and Majuro AtollsFebruary 1944 Capture and occupation of Saipan-June 1944 Leyte landings-October 1944 Nasugbu at Manila Bay operation-January 1945 Assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto-March through June 1945 Following the war, LST-277 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early February 1946 when she returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 12 February 1946. She served with the Shipping Control Authority, Japan, from 20 May 1949 until 31 March 1952. She was transferred on that date to the Military Sea Transportation Service where she served until struck from the Navy list on 1 February 1973. On 2 February 1973, she was sold to the Chilean Navy which she served as Commandante Toro (LST- 97). LST-277 earned five battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 278

LST - 278 was laid down on 16 June 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 12 September 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Dickinson; and commissioned on 22 October 1943. During World War 11, LST-278 was assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the following operations: Marianas operation: (a) Capture and occupation of Saipan-June and July 1944 (b) Tinian capture and occupation-July 1944 Capture and occupation of southern Palau IslandsSeptember and October 1944 LST-278 was decommissioned on 22 January 1945 and redesignated Seaward (IX-209) (q.v.) and recommissioned on 14 February 1945. She served as a barracks and post office at Ulithi until declared in excess of the Navy's needs and destroyed on 16 October 1946. She was struck from the Navy list on 22 May 1947. LST-278 earned three battle stars for World War 11 service.

LST - 279

LST - 279 was laid down on 2 July 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 19 September 1943; sponsored by Miss Marion Ruth Warsack; and commissioned on 25 October 1943, Lt. Charles A. Palm, USNR, in command. During World War 11, LST-279 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 14 June 1955. On 1 July 1955, she was named Berkeley County (LST-279) after counties in South Carolina and West Virginia. The tank landing ship was transferred to Nationalist China on 30 June 1955 as Chung Chie (LST-218) and struck from the Navy list on 25 April 1960. LST-279 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 280

LST - 280 was laid down on 16 July 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 26 September 1943; sponsored by Miss Lois Johnston; and commissioned on 2 November 1943. During World War II, LST-280 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. On 26 October 1944, she was transferred to the United Kingdom and returned to United States Navy custody on 11 April 1946. She was decommissioned on 13 April 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 5 June 1946. LST-280 was sold to Bosey, Philippines, on 5 December 1947. LST-280 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 281

LST - 281 was laid down on 25 June 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 30 September 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Mary Richards; and commissioned on 8 November 1943. During World War II, LST-281 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944, and the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. She was then assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in June 1945. Following the war, LST-281 performed occupation duty in the Far East until early February 1946. She returned to the United States and was decommissioned on 9 March 1946 and transferred to the Shipping Control Authority, Japan, on 20 May 1949. She served with the Military Sea Transportation Service as USNS T-LST-281 from 31 March 1952 until struck from the Navy list on 19 May 1954 and sold. LST-281 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 282

LST - 282 was laid down on 12 July 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 3 October 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Carl B. Ihli; and commissioned on 12 November 1943. During World War 11, LST-282 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and the invasion of southern France in August 1944. On 15 August 1944, LST-282 was sunk by a German radio-controlled bomb off southern France and struck from the Navy list on 16 September 1944. LST-282 earned two battle stars for World War 11 service.

LST - 283

LST - 283 was laid down on 2 August 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 10 October 1943; sponsored by Mrs. McNamee; arid commissioned on 18 November 1943. During World War II, LST-283 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. She performed occupation duty in the Far East between September and November 1945. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 13 June 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 22 January 1947. On 25 March 1947, she was sold to Northrup H. Castle, of Honolulu, Hawaii, for conversion to merchant service. She was purchased by Peru on 21 December 1951 for service in the Peruvian Navy as Chimbote (LST-34). LST-283 earned two battle stars for World War H service. ÊÊLST 283 was sold to Mr. Caesar Roose of Mercer, New Zealand, in about Oct. 1947. She loaded over 200 trucks and other equipment at Pearl Harbour H.I. and sailed for New Zealand , arriving there in early 1948 (feb). She entered Port Waikato, the mouth of the Waikato River on the West coast, North Island. The trucks and machinery was unloaded on to barges and towed up river to Hamilton. (Central North Island ) She lay there for about a year before sailing to SUVA Fiji Islands, which became her port of registry. She plied the South Pacific Islands recovering war surplus machinery , scrap metal and Êgenerally returned this to Sydney, Australia. A lot came from Hollandia, Dutch New Guinea and also from Tulahgi, Solomon Islands. She carried cattle from New Zealand to Solomon Islands, ÊFruit from Fiji/ New Zealand and Australia Hardwood timber Australia/New Zealand. Her trading name was "RAWHITI" maori meaning "morning Light" or sunrise. She was loaded with 3, 000 tons of scrap metal in New Zealand ang sailed for San Francisco in early 1951 where after discharge and drydocking Êshe was handed over to the Navy of PERU. After a long service with that country she was anchored at San Lorenzo Island and allowed to sink. She went down in about 1989. Her general duties included several voyages carrying road building material and cement all the way from LIMA, PERU thru the Panama Canal and up the Amazon River to the fluvial port of IQUITOS. RegardsRay Morey. Australia.

LST - 284

LST - 284 was laid down on 9 August 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 17 October 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Goll; and commissioned on 25 November 1943, Ensign W. Pennington in command. During World War II, LST-284 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. She was then assigned to the Asiatic-Pacific theater and participated in the assault and occupation of Okinawa Gunto in May and June 1945. She performed occupation duty in the Far East until early November 1945. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 13 March 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 19 June 1946. On 11 December 1947, she was sold to the Southern Shipwrecking Co,, of New Orleans, La., for scrapping. LST-284 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 285

LST - 285 was laid down on 16 August 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 24 October 1943; sponsored by Mrs. A. Shaw; and commissioned on 13 December 1943. During World War II, LST-285 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 27 June 1947 and struck from the Navy list on 1 August 1947. On 26 March 1948, she was sold to the Kaiser Co., Inc., of Seattle, Wash., for scrapping. LST-285 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 286

LST - 286 was laid down on 23 August 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 27 October 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Lois Ethel Leseman; and commissioned on 11 December 1943. During World War II, LST-286 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. She performed occupation duty in the Far East in September, November, and December 1945. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 26 March 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 8 May 1946. On 15 April 1948, she was sold to the Bethlehem Steel Co., of Bethlehem, Pa., for scrapping. LST-286 earned two battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 287

LST - 287 was laid down on 30 August 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 31 October 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Agnes Johnston; and commissioned on 15 December 1943, Lt. Frank P. Eldredge, USNR, in command. During World War If, LST-287 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. LST-287 was transferred to the Military Sea Transportation Service on 29 May 1951 where she operated as USNS LST-287. USNS LST-287 was later transferred to the Philippine Navy on 13 September 1976. LST-287 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 288

LST - 288 was laid down on 6 September 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 7 November 1943; sponsored by Miss Virginia M. Plofchan; and commissioned on 20 December 1943. During World War II, LST-288 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and the invasion of southern France in August and September 1944. She performed occupation duty in the Far East in late 1945 and early 1946. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 6 March 1946. She served with the Shipping Control Authority, Japan, from 20 May 1949 to 14 June 1950. On 1 July 1955, the tank landing ship was redesignated Berkshire County (LST-288) after a county in Massachusetts. She was transferred to Korea, on loan, on 5 March 1956 where she served as Ke Bong (LST-810). LST-288 earned three battle stars for World War II service.

LST - 289

LST - 289 was laid down on 14 September 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 21 November 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Raymond Clapper; and commissioned on 31 December 1943, Lt. Harry A. Mettler, USNR, in command. LST-289 was transferred to the United Kingdom on 9 December 1944 and returned to United States Navy custody on 12 October 1946. She was struck from the Navy list on 15 October 1946 and sold to the Netherlands as Fendracht on 30 January 1947 where she was converted for merchant service in 1956.

LST - 290

LST - 290 was laid down on 22 September 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 5 December 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Garner; and commissioned on 10 January 1944. During World War II, LST-290 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 15 November 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 28 November 1945. On 23 December 1946, she was sold to Conlon and Tendler for conversion to merchant service. LST-290 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 291

LST - 291 was laid down on 25 September 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 14 November 1943; sponsored by Mrs. John A. Parfitt; and commissioned on 22 December 1943, Ensign A. G. McNair in command. During World War II, LST-291 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 18 June 1947 and struck from the Navy list on 19 May 1954. She was sunk as a target in July 1954. LST-291 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 292

LST - 292 was laid down on 30 September 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 28 November 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Stuart Brown, Jr.; and commissioned on 5 January 1944. During World War II, LST-292 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 25 January 1946 and struck from the Navy list on 12 April 1946. On 21 January 1948, she was sold to Hughes Bros., New York, N.Y., for scrapping. LST-292 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 293

LST - 293 was laid down on 5 October 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 12 December 1943; sponsored by Mrs. E. Mason; and commissioned on 17 January 1944. During World War II, LST-293 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 3 December 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 19 December 1945. On 1 June 1949, she was sold to James Hughes, Inc., New York, N.Y., for scrapping. LST-293 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 294

LST - 294 was laid down on 12 October 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 15 December 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Sohn; and commissioned on 20 January 1944, Ensign Edward J. Cantelope, USNR, in command. During World War II, LST-294 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Upon her return to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 18 December 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 8 January 1946. On 13 October 1947, she was sold to Luria Bros. & Co., of Philadelphia, Pa. LST-294 earned one battle star for World War II service.

LST - 295

LST - 295 was laid down on 19 October 1943 at Ambridge, Pa., by the American Bridge Co.; launched on 24 December 1943; sponsored by Miss Virginia Helen Valenta; and commissioned on 7 February 1944. During World War II, LST-295 was assigned to the European theater and participated in the invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Upon returning to the United States, the ship was decommissioned on 28 December 1945 and struck from the Navy list on 12 April 1946. On 12 September 1947, she was sold to C. Edwards for conversion to merchant service. LST-295 earned one battle star for World War II service.


The Legendary Small-Block Chevy V-8: A Look Back at Its Highlights

It's not unreasonable to say the Chevrolet small-block V-8 changed the face of automotive engine history. Innovative and technologically advanced when it debuted in 1955, it greatly influenced future V-8 engine designs, both inside General Motors and among the competition. Enthusiasts embraced it and an entire performance aftermarket sprang up around it. Over the years, variations of the small-block V-8 have been used in race cars, off-road trucks, boats, and even custom motorcycles. It can also be found under the hood of everything from classic Ford hot rods to radical Jeep conversions.

"The small-block Chevy is unquestionably the dominant domestic engine both in terms of sheer numbers and also in terms of longevity," said Jeff Smith, senior technical editor for Car Craft Magazine. He cites the engine's interchangeability as one of the biggest reasons for its popularity. "It's possible to swap a set of heads from a 1990 Vortec truck engine onto the original '55 265. I doubt there's an engine ever built (perhaps the VW) that you could swap parts from engines 45 years apart."

"The aftermarket loves engines like the SBC because they knew that if they invested in a decent design like a good flowing cylinder head or a well-designed performance camshaft, that the design would have a decade or more worth of longevity," Smith added.

Bill Tichenor, director of marketing for Holley Performance Products, echoes Smith's sentiments. "It is not unreasonable to say Holley has sold more speed parts for small-block Chevys than all other engines combined. There are great engines from Ford, Chrysler, and others, but the proliferation of cores and affordability of making power with a small-block Chevy made it rise to the top. They certainly have been the engine of choice for street rodding, Chevy muscle cars and trucks, circle track racing, and a lot of drag car, too."

Interestingly, the small-block Chevy was not the first V-8 in the brand's history. From 1917-19, some 3,000 cars were equipped with the little-known Chevy Series D V-8. The 288-cubic-inch (4.7-liter) V-8 had a 4.75:1 compression ratio and produced 55 horsepower at 2,700 rpm. The Series D was the first overhead valve V-8 and featured an exposed valvetrain, nickel-plated valve covers, and an aluminum water-cooled intake manifold.

Three-and-a-half decades after that initial effort, the small-block Chevy was born. Developed as a replacement for Chevrolet's "stove-bolt" six-cylinder engine, the 265-cubic-inch (4.3-liter) "Turbo-Fire" engine arrived in 1955 as an option for the Bel Air and Corvette. Its compact, lightweight design featured 4.4-inch bore spacing and a thin wall casting to reduce weight. An internal oiling system, and the potential to bore and stroke it far beyond the factory limit of 400 cubic inches (Gen I engines), contributed to its long-term success.

We've put together the following list of 10 of the most impressive small-block Chevy V-8s in the brand's history. Enjoy the V-8 power trip.

265 Turbo-Fire V-8

The 265 arrived on the scene with a 3.75-inch bore and 3.00-inch stroke (95.2 - 76.2 mm). It made 162 horsepower and 257 lb-ft in base form with a two-barrel carburetor. An optional Power Pack added a four-barrel carburetor (and other modifications) taking power up to 180 horsepower and an even 260 lb-ft of torque. When fitted to the Corvette, the 265 made 195 horsepower through a dual exhaust system. Later in the year Chevrolet added a Super Power Pack option to the Bel Air, taking it to Corvette power levels.

In 1956, the 265 in the Corvette was available in three more powerful flavors: 210 horsepower with a single four-barrel carburetor, 225 horsepower with "dual quads," and 240 horsepower with the dual four-barrel carburetors and a high-lift camshaft. Its compact size was made possible by consolidating accessories. According to GM, it used a one-piece intake manifold that combined the water outlet, exhaust heat riser, distributor mounting, oil filler, and valley cover into a single casting.

283 Turbo-Fire V-8

The small-block Chevy was blessed with more displacement in its third year (the 162 horsepower 265 was still the base engine). A larger 3.875-inch bore brought the "Mighty Mouse" up to 283 cubic inches (4.6 liters). Early 283s used 265 block castings, but thin cylinder walls contributed to overheating. The issue was caught early on and subsequent 283 engine blocks were specifically cast to prevent the problem.

The 283, dubbed Super Turbo-Fire, came with a choice of a carburetion or mechanical fuel injection. It made 185 horsepower with an 8.5:1 compression ratio and two-barrel carburetor 220 horsepower with 9.5:1 compression and four-barrel carburetor and 245 or 270 horsepower when fitted with dual four-barrel carburetors and the higher compression ratio.

Models equipped with the Rochester Ram-Jet fuel injection system made 250 horsepower. The most powerful engine of the lot was the 283-hp fuel-injected Super Ram-Jet with its 10.5:1 compression ratio, helping it achieve the coveted one horsepower per cubic inch status. In Motor Trend testing at the time, a 1957 Corvette fitted with the Super Ram-Jet reached a top speed of 132 mph at the General Motors Proving Grounds outside of Milford, Michigan.

327

By 1962, a 170-horsepower version of the 283 became Chevy's base V-8, but optional small-block V-8s received a full 4.00-inch bore and a longer stroke at 3.25 inches for a total displacement of 327 cubic inches. The optional 327 was available with 250, 300, or 340 horsepower, depending on the four-barrel carburetor and compression ratio. The Corvette was still available with mechanical fuel injection, which pumped out 360 horsepower with an 11.25:1 compression ratio.

The 327-cubic-inch small-block reached its peak power rating in 1965: 365 horsepower with a four-barrel Holley carburetor or 375 (1.15 hp/cu-in) with the Rochester Ram-Jet fuel injection system. By mid-1965, the 327 played second fiddle to the 396-cubic-inch big block that debuted in the Corvette. It soldiered on as the base engine with a choice of 300 or 350 horsepower. It remained as a step up from the base 283s (and later 307s) in passenger cars and the base engine in the Corvette until the 350 (first seen in the 1967 Camaro) was introduced into America's sports car in 1969.

The Camaro was Chevy's response to the Ford Mustang. Besides defending GM's entry-level brand, the Camaro introduced two small-block displacement landmarks. First up was the 302-cubic-inch engine designed for SCCA Trans Am competition. The 302 was created by combining the 327's engine block casting (4.00-inch bore) with the 283's crankshaft (3.00-inch stroke). This engine was built for competition and featured plenty of race-car kit, including an 11:1 compression ratio four bolt main caps a solid-lifter camshaft and solid valve lifters high-rise intake manifold topped with an 800 CFM Holley four-barrel carburetor high-capacity oil pump and baffled oil pan. It exhaled through a 2.25-inch dual exhaust system. The engine was finished with a chrome-plated air cleaner, rocker covers, filler tube, and cap.

Camaro owners who opted for the Z/28 package were rewarded with a 302 pumping out 290 horsepower at 5,800 rpm and 290 lb-ft of torque at 4,200 rpm. Many believe the horsepower rating was conservative. Z/28 owners found a box with tubular headers in the trunk. With the headers installed, a proper carburetor main-jet, and ignition-timing tuning it produced around 376 horsepower. Race engines with dual quads made as much as 465 horsepower. During its three year production run, more than 19,000 Camaro buyers opted for the Z/28, and with good reason.

The 1967 Camaro also brought the world the first 350-cubic-inch small-block Chevy V-8. This engine would eventually be used in passenger cars and trucks in nearly every imaginable level of tune. Like the 302, it was based on the 327 block, but the 350 had an all-new crankshaft with a 3.48-inch stroke. The first version, dubbed the L-48, produced 295 horsepower and 380 lb-ft of torque. The 350 became available in the Nova in 1968 and in its third year it was optional across the Chevrolet passenger car line. It replaced the 327 as the base engine in the Corvette in 1969. Power fluctuated during the 1970s fuel crisis, and many versions of the 350 emerged. At its lowest point the 350 was rated at a mere 145 horsepower (net).

But it didn't take long for the small-block Chevy to regain its reputation as a powerhouse. The L-48 and ZQ3 both hit the 300 horsepower mark. Two other versions surpassed those numbers: the 350 horsepower (net) L-46, optional in the 1969 Corvette, and the LT-1 in 1970. The LT-1 came ready to battle with solid lifters, 11:1 compression, high-po camshaft, and a 780 CFM Holley four-barrel carburetor that sent fuel and air through an aluminum intake manifold. Exhaust gasses exited the combustion chamber through ramhorn manifolds and high-flow exhaust. In 1970, the LT-1 cranked out 370 horsepower (gross) and was available in the Corvette ZR-1 and Camaro Z28. Just two years later the power level dropped to 255 horsepower (net).

It took nearly 15 years before the Chevy 350 got an injection of power. The L98 began the slow process. GM blessed the L98 350 with an all-new tuned-port fuel injection system forever known by Chevy fans as the TPI and recognized by its elephant leg runners. Although it was only rated at 230 horsepower, it was a step up from the 205 horsepower L83 from the year prior. By 1991, power reached 245 horsepower in the Camaro and Pontiac Firebird and 250 horsepower and 345 lb-ft of torque in the Corvette.

The largest version of the Generation I small-block was the 400 (6.6 liter). It was the only engine available with both the 4.125-inch bore and the 3.75-inch stroke crankshaft. It debuted in 1970 and was produced for 10 years. It featured Siamesed cylinders for greater strength, with the large bore and a larger 2.65 inch rod journal. Early models produced 265 horsepower with a two-barrel carburetor. A four-barrel carburetor option became available in 1974. In its darkest hour it only made 145 horsepower. Regardless of horsepower rating, the 400 was a torque monster. The engine was available in full-size A-body and midsize B-body Chevy passenger cars until the end of the 1976 model year. It soldiered on a few more years in full-size pickups.

It didn't take long for hot rodders to put the 400's 3.75-inch-stroke crankshaft in a 350 engine block, creating the 383 stroker. Water jackets in between all cylinders in the 350 engine block resisted overheating, unlike the 400 block, which didn't have that cooling advantage. Although the 383 was never offered as a factory option, this configuration's popularity prompted GM to offer a 383 crate motor in its performance catalog.

The Corvette has always been a test bed for Chevrolet's latest technologies—and the 1992 model with the Generation II LT small-block was no different. While many parts were interchangeable between Gen I and Gen II engines, the LT used a new block and head design with "reverse flow" cooling system that sent coolant through the cylinder heads first before flowing down through the engine block. The heads and combustion chamber stayed consistently cooler, allowing higher compression and more spark advance for increased power. The water pump, intake manifold, and dampener/pulley system were all unique to the Gen II small-block.

However, GM wisely kept the engine mounts and bell housing bolt pattern the same so hot rodders could transplant the new engine into an older chassis.

The 1992 Corvette made 300 horsepower and 330 lb-ft of torque. The fourth-generation F-Body twins (Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird) gained the LT1 for their 1993 redesign and were rated 275 horsepower and 325 lb-ft of torque. The engine was also available in the full-size B- and D-body GM vehicles. Most memorable is the 1994-1996 Chevrolet Impala SS with 260 horsepower and 330 lb-ft of torque. All engine blocks were iron, but Corvettes and F-body cars had aluminum heads. Full-size cars had iron heads. For 1996, Corvettes equipped with six-speed manual transmissions (including all Grand Sports) were powered by a limited run (6359 units) 330-horsepower LT4 engine with 340 lb-ft of torque. In 1997, the Chevrolet Camaro SLP/LT4 SS and Pontiac Firebird SLP/LT4 Firehawk were available with the LT4. Only 135 F-bodies were built with the LT4.

The LT1 used a speed density fuel management system with batch-fire fuel injection in its first two years. In 1994 it received a mass airflow sensor and sequential port injection. The engine control module (ECM) was also replaced with a more powerful control module (PCM). The 1994 Corvette received the new OBD II system for testing before the government mandated requirement began in 1996.

The new engine wasn't without its faults. Early models were plagued by a small design flaw in the Opti-Spark distributor. Vacuum vents were added to the distributor to remove the moisture that affected its spark ability. Unfortunately, the water pumps leaked water and coolant into the vents, ruining the distributor. Although not as popular as the original small-block Chevy - or the later LS engine family - the LT1/LT4 still appeals to many enthusiasts.

"Perhaps the only hiccup in the SBC lineage was the LT1/LT4 variation with its reverse cooling and Opti-Spark ignition variables that made that engine less popular. And yet, it still commands interest despite its very short lineage," said Smith.

LS1/LS6

GM's Generation III engine first hit the scene in 1997 in the all-new C5 Corvette. The LS series engines had little in common with the first two generations of the small-block Chevy, but still used 4.4-inch bore spacing. Most truck versions of the Gen III engine family had an iron block and aluminum heads, but the performance engines had aluminum blocks with six-bolt main caps.

In the Corvette, the LS1 made 345 horsepower and 350 lb-ft of torque. It arrived in the F-body twins a year later making 305 horsepower in Z28 and Formula trim and 325 horsepower with the SS and Trans Am ram-air packages.

Gen III engines introduced coil-near-plug ignition in place of a distributor and redesigned heads for increased air flow and power. The LS1 had a smaller bore and longer stroke than the Gen I and Gen II 350/5.7-liter V-8s. The new engine used a 3.89-inch (99.0 mm) bore and a 3.62-inch (92 mm) stroke for a total displacement if 345.7 cubic inches or 5.7 liters.

In 2001, the Corvette Z06 was introduced with a higher-performance 5.7-liter called the LS6. Power was bumped to 385 horsepower and 385 lb-ft of torque. The next year it received another bump in power to 405 horsepower and an even 400 lb-ft of torque. The LS6 was used in the Corvette Z06 until the C5 was replaced by the C6 in 2005. Cadillac used the LS6 in the first-generation CTS V from 2004-2005.

The LS6 was based on the LS1 engine, but had a stronger block a redesigned intake manifold and larger MAF-sensor for better breathing a "bigger" camshaft and higher compression ratio and a revised oiling system for track use.

The Generation IV small-block Chevy V-8 hit the streets in 2005 and is based on the Generation III but was redesigned to utilize displacement on demand and variable valve timing technologies. The LS7 is the largest factory-installed small-block Chevy V-8 ever, displacing 427.8 cubic inches or just over 7.0 liters. It featured the same bore as the 1970s 400-cubic-inch engine of 4.125 inches (104.8 mm), but unlike the 400, the LS7 got a full 4.00-inch (102 mm) stroke crankshaft. The 7.0-liter small-block monster has a 7100 rpm redline and churns out an astonishing 505 horsepower and 470 lb-ft of torque -- the most net horsepower of any naturally aspirated small-block in GM's history.

Still based on the original 4.4-inch bore spacing, the LS7 uses pressed-in cylinder liners and forged steel bearing caps, forged titanium connecting rods, and hypereutectic pistons for strength. Intake valves are titanium and exhaust valves are sodium-filled. The hand-built LS7 is assembled at the General Motors Performance Build Center in Wixom, Michigan, and features a dry-sump oiling system to cope with high-lateral g's experienced during track days and enthusiastic driving. In North America the engine comes factory-equipped in the 2006 to present Corvette Z06 or as a crate engine.

LS9/LSA

A serious highlight in the small-block V-8's history would have to be the Generation IV LS9 engine: a 6.2-liter (376-cubic-inch) engine topped with an Eaton four-lobe Roots type 2300 TVS supercharger. The LS7 was considered for the base engine, but the smaller bore and thicker cylinder walls of the LS3 engine were required for durability under boost. Bore is 4.06 inches (103 mm) and stroke is 3.62 inches (92 mm). Power is rated at 638 horsepower at 6500 rpm and 604 lb-ft of torque at 3800 rpm -- the most powerful factory-installed small-block Chevy ever. No surprise that the engine debuted in the most extreme sports car ever from GM: the 2009 C6 Chevrolet Corvette ZR1. In our testing the ZR1 went from 0-60 mph in 3.3 seconds and cleared the quarter mile in 11.2 seconds at 130.3 mph.

The LSA is a detuned version of the LS9 engine and debuted in the 2009 Cadillac CTS V. This version is still capable of a substantial 556 horsepower and 551 lb-ft of torque. It is the most powerful engine ever offered in a Cadillac up to that point, and was available in all three CTS body styles: the sensuous coupe, sedate sedan, wagon. This engine is capable of pushing the nearly 4353-pound wagon to 60 mph in 4.1 seconds and through the quarter mile in 12.5 seconds at 114.8 mph.

Gen V LT5

The C7 Corvette went out with a big, supercharged bang: the ZR1, powered by the 6.2-liter LT5. It's a beastly thing, cranking out 755 horsepower courtesy of an Eaton supercharger. It's based on the venerable LT4 engine, but there's a host of new go-faster bits: a 95mm throttle body, port- and direct-injection, a stronger crankshaft, a new oiling system, and a 52 percent larger supercharger. Peak boost tops out at 13.96 psi near max rpm.

But unlike the LT4, there's less propensity for heat-related issues thanks to four new heat exchangers and 41 percent more cooling airflow overall. All this power is good to rocket the ZR1 to a 3.2-second 0-60 time and an 11.2 second quarter mile in our testing. What a finale.

Final Thoughts

With nearly 25 years under its belt in truck and passenger car duty, the LS-series family has become widely available and affordable. The aftermarket has embraced it in much the same way it did the original small-block Chevy V-8.

"As the original small-block Chevy becomes harder to find in junkyards, we continue to see GM's LS engine taking over where the original small-block left off," said Tichenor. "LS engines are readily available and are even easier to make power with than the original. They are extremely reliable and smooth and now Holley is making speed parts for the LS just as we did for the traditional small-block Chevy. Looks like here we go all over again!"

This article was originally published in 2011 and has been lightly edited and updated for context and clarity.


Our vast Historic Photograph Collection is a rich assembly of images that engage our eyes, hearts and minds in the stories they tell of our naval and national heritage.

An oral history with Ms. Patty Maddocks recalling the history of the photo archive was recorded in 2001 and can be read below:

Since 2001, the staff has focused on collecting new holdings while digitizing, cataloguing and highlighting our existing holdings. Our digital archive is continually growing and it allows the Naval Institute to expand and expedite the availability of it resources to a worldwide audience.


Crabapple Park Pavilion Rental Pavilion rates are: Resident Non-Resident Friday, Saturday, Sunday, Holidays $125.00 $150.00 Friday Evening (5pm) $75.00 $100.00 Monday–Thursday $40.00 $55.00 Pavilion Amenities: 11 tables water seating.

Sewickley Township Recreation Information Recreation Contact Information Gym Rental Indoor Walker Schedule Birthday Parties Gymnasium Pictures Gymnasium Rules Recreation Contact Information Recreation Personnel: Janet Schork, Director Yvonne Shawl.

"Welcome to Sewickley Township"

Kids’ Lunch & Learn

Kids’ Lunch & Learn

Crabapple Park!

When: Thursdays: June 24, July 15, & August 19 at 12:00pm-3:00pm


Contents

2003–2006: Thefacebook, Thiel investment, and name change

Zuckerberg built a website called "Facemash" in 2003 while attending Harvard University. The site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online face books of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person". [17] Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. [18] The site was sent to several campus group listservs, but was shut down a few days later by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy. Ultimately, the charges were dropped. [17] Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam. He uploaded all art images to a website, each of which was accompanied by a comments section, then shared the site with his classmates. [19]

A "face book" is a student directory featuring photos and personal information. [18] In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version [20] along with private online directories. [17] [21] Zuckerberg told The Harvard Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard. . I think it's kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week." [21] In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is readily available . the benefits are many." Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, and each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. [22] On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com. [23]

Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. [24] The three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They later sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 [25] for 1.2 million shares (worth $300 million at Facebook's IPO). [26]

Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. [27] Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. [28] In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia, Stanford and Yale. [29] It then became available to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, NYU, MIT, and successively most universities in the United States and Canada. [30] [31]

In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. [32] In June 2004, the company moved to Palo Alto, California. [33] It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. [34] In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name Facebook.com for US$200,000. [35] The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation.

In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer [36] added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. [37] Eligibility expanded to include employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. [38]

2006–2012: Public access, Microsoft alliance, and rapid growth

In May 2006, Facebook hired its first intern, Julie Zhuo. [39] After a month, Zhuo was hired as a full-time engineer. [39] On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. [40] [41] [42] By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages on which companies promoted themselves. [43] Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. [44] On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements. [45] [46]

In May 2007, at the first f8 developers conference, Facebook announced the launch of the Facebook Developer Platform, providing a framework for software developers to create applications that interact with core Facebook features. By the second annual f8 developers conference on July 23, 2008, the number of applications on the platform had grown to 33,000, and the number of registered developers had exceeded 400,000. [47]

In October 2008, Facebook announced that its international headquarters would locate in Dublin, Ireland. [48] In September 2009, Facebook said that it had achieved positive cash flow for the first time. [49] A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users. [50]

The company announced 500 million users in July 2010. [51] Half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site from mobile devices. A company representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution." [52] In October 2010 groups are introduced. [53] In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc. (an exchange for privately held companies' shares), Facebook's value was $41 billion. The company had slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google and Amazon.com. [54] [55]

On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history. [56]

In February 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park, California. [57] [58] In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook was removing about 20,000 profiles daily for violations such as spam, graphic content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security. [59] Statistics showed that Facebook reached one trillion page views in the month of June 2011, making it the most visited website tracked by DoubleClick. [60] [61] According to a Nielsen study, Facebook had in 2011 become the second-most accessed website in the U.S. behind Google. [62] [63]

2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits, and one-billionth user

In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the website. The store was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and for mobile web users. [65]

Facebook's initial public offering came on May 17, 2012, at a share price of US$38. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to that date. [66] [67] [68] The IPO raised $16 billion, the third-largest in U.S. history, after Visa Inc. in 2008 and AT&T Wireless in 2000. [69] [70] Based on its 2012 income of $5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the first time in May 2013, ranked 462. [71] The shares set a first day record for trading volume of an IPO (460 million shares). [72] The IPO was controversial given the immediate price declines that followed, [73] [74] [75] [76] and was the subject of lawsuits, [77] while SEC and FINRA both launched investigations. [78]

Zuckerberg announced at the start of October 2012 that Facebook had one billion monthly active users, [79] including 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads and 140 billion friend connections. [80]

2013–2014: Site developments, A4AI, and 10th anniversary

On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging data present on its site. [81] Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware", returning results only from content already shared with the user. [82] On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. HTC announced HTC First, a phone with Home pre-loaded. [83]

On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles. [84] On April 19 Facebook modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box. [85]

Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic violence and sexual violence against women and led 15 advertisers to withdraw, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque, and Nationwide UK. The company initially stated, "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies". [86] It took action on May 29. [87]

On June 12, Facebook announced that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic. [88] San Mateo County, California, became the top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012 because of Facebook. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average salary was 107% higher than the previous year, at $168,000 a year, more than 50% higher than the next-highest county, New York County (better known as Manhattan), at roughly $110,000 a year. [89]

Facebook joined Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) in October, as it launched. The A4AI is a coalition of public and private organizations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable to ease access in the developing world. [90]

The company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014. [91] In January 2014, over one billion users connected via a mobile device. [92] As of June, mobile accounted for 62% of advertising revenue, an increase of 21% from the previous year. [93] By September Facebook's market capitalization had exceeded $200 billion. [94] [95] [96]

Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin. Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in China's online policy, on December 8. [97] [98] [99]

2015–2020: Improvement fake news

As of 2015 [update] , Facebook's algorithm was revised in an attempt to filter out false or misleading content, such as fake news stories and hoaxes. It relied on users who flag a story accordingly. Facebook maintained that satirical content should not be intercepted. [100] The algorithm was accused of maintaining a "filter bubble", where material the user disagrees with [101] and posts with few likes would be deprioritized. [102] In November, Facebook extended paternity leave from 4 weeks to 4 months. [103]

On April 12, 2016, Zuckerberg outlined his 10-year vision, which rested on three main pillars: artificial intelligence, increased global connectivity, and virtual and augmented reality. [104] In July, a US$1 billion suit was filed against the company alleging that it permitted Hamas to use it to perform assaults that cost the lives of four people. [105] Facebook released its blueprints of Surround 360 camera on GitHub under an open-source license. [106] In September, it won an Emmy for its animated short "Henry". [107] In October, Facebook announced a fee-based communications tool called Workplace that aims to "connect everyone" at work. Users can create profiles, see updates from co-workers on their news feed, stream live videos and participate in secure group chats. [108]

Following the 2016 presidential election, Facebook announced that it would combat fake news by using fact checkers from sites like FactCheck.org and Associated Press (AP), making reporting hoaxes easier through crowdsourcing, and disrupting financial incentives for abusers. [109]

On January 17, 2017, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg planned to open Station F, a startup incubator campus in Paris, France. [111] On a six-month cycle, Facebook committed to work with ten to 15 data-driven startups there. [112] On April 18, Facebook announced the beta launch of Facebook Spaces at its annual F8 developer conference. [113] Facebook Spaces is a virtual reality version of Facebook for Oculus VR goggles. In a virtual and shared space, users can access a curated selection of 360-degree photos and videos using their avatar, with the support of the controller. Users can access their own photos and videos, along with media shared on their newsfeed. [114] In September, Facebook announced it would spend up to US$1 billion on original shows for its Facebook Watch platform. [115] On October 16, it acquired the anonymous compliment app tbh, announcing its intention to leave the app independent. [116] [117] [118] [119]

In May 2018 at F8, the company announced it would offer its own dating service. Shares in competitor Match Group fell by 22%. [120] Facebook Dating includes privacy features and friends are unable to view their friends' dating profile. [121] In July, Facebook was charged £500,000 by UK watchdogs for failing to respond to data erasure requests. [122] On July 18, Facebook established a subsidiary named Lianshu Science & Technology in Hangzhou City, China, with $30 million of capital. All its shares are held by Facebook Hong. [123] Approval of the registration of the subsidiary was then withdrawn, due to a disagreement between officials in Zhejiang province and the Cyberspace Administration of China. [124] On July 26, Facebook became the first company to lose over $100 billion worth of market capitalization in one day, dropping from nearly $630 billion to $510 billion after disappointing sales reports. [125] [126] On July 31, Facebook said that the company had deleted 17 accounts related to the 2018 U.S. midterm elections. On September 19, Facebook announced that, for news distribution outside the United States, it would work with U.S. funded democracy promotion organizations, International Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute, which are loosely affiliated with the Republican and Democratic parties. [127] Through the Digital Forensic Research Lab Facebook partners with the Atlantic Council, a NATO-affiliated think tank. [127] In November, Facebook launched smart displays branded Portal and Portal Plus (Portal+). They support Amazon's Alexa (intelligent personal assistant service). The devices include video chat function with Facebook Messenger. [128] [129]

In August 2018, a lawsuit was filed in Oakland, California claiming that Facebook created fake accounts in order to inflate its user data and appeal to advertisers in the process. [15]

In January 2019, the 10 year challenge was started [130] asking users to post a photograph of themselves from 10 years ago (2009) and a more recent photo. [131]

Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitancy, Facebook announced in March 2019 that it would provide users with "authoritative information" on the topic of vaccines. [132] A study in the journal Vaccine [133] of advertisements posted in the three months prior to that found that 54% of the anti-vaccine advertisements on Facebook were placed by just two organisations funded by well-known anti-vaccination activists. [134] The Children's Health Defense / World Mercury Project chaired by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Stop Mandatory Vaccination, run by campaigner Larry Cook, posted 54% of the advertisements. The ads often linked to commercial products, such as natural remedies and books.

On March 14, the Huffington Post reported that Facebook's PR agency had paid someone to tweak Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg's Wikipedia page, as well as adding a page for the global head of PR, Caryn Marooney. [135]

In March 2019, the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand used Facebook to stream live footage of the attack as it unfolded. Facebook took 29 minutes to detect the livestreamed video, which was eight minutes longer than it took police to arrest the gunman. About 1.3m copies of the video were blocked from Facebook but 300,000 copies were published and shared. Facebook has promised changes to its platform spokesman Simon Dilner told Radio New Zealand that it could have done a better job. Several companies, including the ANZ and ASB banks, have stopped advertising on Facebook after the company was widely condemned by the public. [136] Following the attack, Facebook began blocking white nationalist, white supremacist, and white separatist content, saying that they could not be meaningfully separated. Previously, Facebook had only blocked overtly supremacist content. The older policy had been condemned by civil rights groups, who described these movements as functionally indistinct. [137] [138] Further bans were made in mid-April 2019, banning several British far-right organizations and associated individuals from Facebook, and also banning praise or support for them. [139] [140]

NTJ's member Moulavi Zahran Hashim, a radical Islamist imam believed to be the mastermind behind the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, preached on a pro-ISIL Facebook account, known as "Al-Ghuraba" media. [141] [142]

On May 2, 2019, at F8, the company announced its new vision with the tagline "the future is private". [143] A redesign of the website and mobile app was introduced, dubbed as "FB5". [144] The event also featured plans for improving groups, [145] a dating platform, [146] end-to-end encryption on its platforms, [147] and allowing users on Messenger to communicate directly with WhatsApp and Instagram users. [148] [149]

On July 31, 2019, Facebook announced a partnership with University of California, San Francisco to build a non-invasive, wearable device that lets people type by simply imagining themselves talking. [150]

On September 5, 2019, Facebook launched Facebook Dating in the United States. This new application allows users to integrate their Instagram posts in their dating profile. [151]

Facebook News, which features selected stories from news organizations, was launched on October 25. [152] Facebook's decision to include far-right website Breitbart News as a "trusted source" was negatively received. [153] [154]

On November 17, 2019, the banking data for 29,000 Facebook employees was stolen from a payroll worker's car. The data was stored on unencrypted hard drives and included bank account numbers, employee names, the last four digits of their social security numbers, salaries, bonuses, and equity details. The company didn't realize the hard drives were missing until November 20. Facebook confirmed that the drives contained employee information on November 29. Employees weren't notified of the break-in until December 13, 2019. [155]

On March 10, 2020, Facebook appointed two new directors Tracey Travis and Nancy Killefer to their board of members. [156]

In June 2020, several major companies including Adidas, Aviva, Coca-Cola, Ford, HP, Intercontinental Hotels Group, Mars, Starbucks, Target, and Unilever, announced they would pause adverts on Facebook for July in support of the Stop Hate for Profit campaign which claimed the company was not doing enough to remove hateful content. [157] The BBC noted that this was unlikely to affect the company as most of Facebook's advertising revenue comes from small- to medium-sized businesses. [158]

On August 14, 2020, Facebook started integrating the direct messaging service of Instagram with its own Messenger for both iOS and Android devices. After the update, an update screen is said to pop up on Instagram's mobile app with the following message, "There’s a New Way to Message on Instagram" with a list of additional features. As part of the update, the regular DM icon on the top right corner of Instagram will be replaced by the Facebook Messenger logo. [159]

On September 15, 2020, Facebook launched a climate science information centre to promote authoritative voices on climate change and provide access of "factual and up-to-date" information on climate science. It featured facts, figures and data from organizations, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Met Office, UN Environment Programme (UNEP), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO), with relevant news posts. [160]

After the US election, Facebook tweaked the news feed to quantify the trustworthiness and quality of a news source. With this Facebook reduce Election-related misinformation and hate speech without hurting the company's bottom line. [161]

2020–present: FTC lawsuit

As of December 2020 Facebook is being sued by the Federal Trade Commission for illegal monopolization and is seeking the sale of subsidiaries WhatsApp and Instagram. [162] [163]

In response to the proposed bill in the Australian Parliament for a News Media Bargaining Code, on February 17, 2021, Facebook blocked Australian users from sharing or viewing news content on its platform, as well as pages of some government, community, union, charity, political, and emergency services. [164] The Australian government strongly criticised the move, saying it demonstrated the "immense market power of these digital social giants". [165]

On February 22 Facebook said it reached an agreement with the Australian government that would see news returning to Australian users in the coming days. As part of this agreement, Facebook and Google can avoid the News Media Bargaining Code adopted on February 25 if they "reach a commercial bargain with a news business outside the Code". [166] [167] [168]

Facebook has been accused of removing and shadow banning content that spoke either in favor of protesting Indian farmers or against Narendra Modi's government. [169] [170] [171] India-based employees of Facebook are at risk of arrest. [172]

Although Facebook's rules state that it is "against the Facebook Community Standards to maintain more than one personal account," [173] Facebook avoids enforcing this rule even when multiple personal accounts are reported for attention, they pass the investigation, and even Facebook users with less than 100 friend connections might see multiple instances among those 100 that must represent either friends with multiple personal accounts or imposters claiming to be those people.

Technical aspects

The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red–green colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around 2007. [174] [175] Facebook is built in PHP, compiled with HipHop for PHP, a "source code transformer" built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++. [176] The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by 50%. [177]

2012 architecture

Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Facebook build engineer Chuck Rossi, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent-based release system. Rossi stated that it takes about 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process has zero downtime. Changes to Facebook are rolled out daily. [177]

Facebook used a combination platform based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Using a tailing architecture, events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. The system rolls these events up and writes them to storage. The user interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a log file using Scribe (developed by Facebook). [178]

Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out. Ptail data are separated into three streams and sent to clusters in different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow (Input/Output or IO). Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods (A hot article generates many impressions and news feed impressions that cause huge data skews). Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table. [178]

Data is then output in PHP format. The backend is written in Java. Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions display pages more quickly. The data is then sent to MapReduce servers where it is queried via Hive. This serves as a backup as the data can be recovered from Hive. [178]

Content delivery network (CDN)

Facebook uses a CDN or 'edge network' under the domain fbcdn.net for serving static data. [179] [180] Until the mid 2010s, Facebook also relied on akamai as the CDN service provider. [181] [182] [183]

On March 20, 2014, Facebook announced a new open-source programming language called Hack. Before public release, a large portion of Facebook was already running and "battle tested" using the new language. [184]

Facebook BARS

On February 27, 2021, Facebook announced Facebook BARS app for rappers. [185]

History

On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a cleaner look. [186] Facebook began migrating users to the new version in September 2008. [187]

User profile/personal timeline

Each registered user on Facebook has a personal profile that shows their posts and content. [188] The format of individual user pages was revamped in September 2011 and became known as "Timeline", a chronological feed of a user's stories, [189] [190] including status updates, photos, interactions with apps and events. [191] The layout let users add a "cover photo". [191] Users were given more privacy settings. [191] In 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Pages for brands and celebrities to interact with their fanbase. [192] [193] 100,000 Pages launched in November. [194] In June 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, allowing users to choose a unique nickname used in the URL for their personal profile, for easier sharing. [195] [196]

In February 2014, Facebook expanded the gender setting, adding a custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of gender identities. Users can also set which set of gender-specific pronoun should be used in reference to them throughout the site. [197] [198] [199] In May 2014, Facebook introduced a feature to allow users to ask for information not disclosed by other users on their profiles. If a user does not provide key information, such as location, hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new "ask" button to send a message asking about that item to the user in a single click. [200] [201]

News Feed

News Feed appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events and friends' birthdays. [202] This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. [203] Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users). [204] Zuckerberg apologized for the site's failure to include appropriate privacy features. Users then gained control over what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts and newly added friends. [205]

On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent [206] on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the activity of another user. [207] The sorting and display of stories in a user's News Feed is governed by the EdgeRank algorithm. [208]

The Photos application allows users to upload albums and photos. [209] Each album can contain 200 photos. [210] Privacy settings apply to individual albums. Users can "tag", or label, friends in a photo. The friend receives a notification about the tag with a link to the photo. [211] This photo tagging feature was developed by Aaron Sittig, now a Design Strategy Lead at Facebook, and former Facebook engineer Scott Marlette back in 2006 and was only granted a patent in 2011. [212] [213]

On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to help users find games and other applications. [214]

On May 13, 2015, Facebook in association with major news portals launched "Instant Articles" to provide news on the Facebook news feed without leaving the site. [215] [216]

In January 2017, Facebook launched Facebook Stories for iOS and Android in Ireland. The feature, following the format of Snapchat and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above friends' and followers' News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours. [217]

On October 11, 2017, Facebook introduced the 3D Posts feature to allow for uploading interactive 3D assets. [218] On January 11, 2018, Facebook announced that it would change News Feed to prioritize friends/family content and de-emphasize content from media companies. [219]

In February 2020, Facebook announced it would spend $1 billion to license news material from publishers for the next three years a pledge coming as the company falls under scrutiny from governments across the globe over paying for news content appearing on the platform. The pledge would be in addition to the $600 million paid since 2018 through deals with news companies such as The Guardian and Financial Times. [220] [221] [222]

In March and April 2021, in response to Apple announcing changes to its iOS device's Identifier for Advertisers policy, which included requiring app developers to directly request to users the ability to track on an opt-in basis, Facebook purchased full-page newspaper advertisements attempting to convince users to allow tracking, highlighting the effects targeted ads have on small businesses. [223] Facebook's efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, as Apple released iOS 14.5 in late April 2021, containing the feature for users in what has been deemed "App Tracking Transparency". Moreover, statistics from Verizon Communications subsidiary Flurry Analytics show 96% of all iOS users in the United States are not permitting tracking at all, and only 12% of worldwide iOS users are allowing tracking, which some news outlets deem "Facebook's nightmare", among similar terms. [224] [225] [226] [227] Despite the news, Facebook has stated that the new policy and software update would be "manageable". [228]

Like button

The "like" button, stylized as a "thumbs up" icon, was first enabled on February 9, 2009, [229] and enables users to easily interact with status updates, comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. Once clicked by a user, the designated content is more likely to appear in friends' News Feeds. [230] [231] The button displays the number of other users who have liked the content. [232] The like button was extended to comments in June 2010. [233] In February 2016, Facebook expanded Like into "Reactions", choosing among five pre-defined emotions, including "Love", "Haha", "Wow", "Sad", or "Angry". [234] [235] [236] [237] In late April 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, a new "Care" reaction was added. [238]

Instant messaging

Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. It began as Facebook Chat in 2008, [239] was revamped in 2010 [240] and eventually became a standalone mobile app in August 2011, while remaining part of the user page on browsers. [241]

Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-one [242] and group [243] voice [244] and video calls. [245] Its Android app has integrated support for SMS [246] and "Chat Heads", which are round profile photo icons appearing on-screen regardless of what app is open, [247] while both apps support multiple accounts, [248] conversations with optional end-to-end encryption [249] and "Instant Games". [250] Some features, including sending money [251] and requesting transportation, [252] are limited to the United States. [251] In 2017, Facebook added "Messenger Day", a feature that lets users share photos and videos in a story-format with all their friends with the content disappearing after 24 hours [253] Reactions, which lets users tap and hold a message to add a reaction through an emoji [254] and Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type @ to give a particular user a notification. [254]

Businesses and users can interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. Third-party developers can integrate apps into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app into a chat. [255] Developers can build chatbots into Messenger, for uses such as news publishers building bots to distribute news. [256] The M virtual assistant (U.S.) scans chats for keywords and suggests relevant actions, such as its payments system for users mentioning money. [257] [258] Group chatbots appear in Messenger as "Chat Extensions". A "Discovery" tab allows finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that, when scanned, take the user to a specific bot. [259]

Following

Users can "Follow" content posted by other users without needing to friend them. [260] Accounts can be "verified", confirming a user's identity. [261]

Privacy controls

Facebook enables users to control access to individual posts and their profile [263] through privacy settings. [264] The user's name and profile picture (if applicable) are public. Facebook's revenue depends on targeted advertising, which involves analyzing user data (from the site and the broader internet) to inform the targeting. These facilities have changed repeatedly since the service's debut, amid a series of controversies covering everything from how well it secures user data, to what extent it allows users to control access, to the kinds of access given to third parties, including businesses, political campaigns and governments. These facilities vary according to country, as some nations require the company to make data available (and limit access to services), while the European Union's GDPR regulation mandates additional privacy protections. [265]

Facebook Bug Bounty Program

On July 29, 2011, Facebook announced its Bug Bounty Program that paid security researchers a minimum of $500 for reporting security holes. The company promised not to pursue "white hat" hackers who identified such problems. [266] [267] This led researchers in many countries to participate, particularly in India and Russia. [268]

User growth and decline

Facebook's rapid growth began as soon as it became available and continued through 2018, before beginning to decline.

Facebook passed 100 million registered users in 2008, [269] and 500 million in July 2010. [51] According to the company's data at the July 2010 announcement, half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site by mobile. [52]

In October 2012 Facebook's monthly active users passed one billion, [79] [270] with 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend connections. [80] The 2 billion user mark was crossed in June 2017. [271] [272]

In November 2015, after skepticism about the accuracy of its "monthly active users" measurement, Facebook changed its definition to a logged-in member who visits the Facebook site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the Facebook Messenger app, in the 30 day period prior to the measurement. This excluded the use of third-party services with Facebook integration, which was previously counted. [273]

From 2017 to 2019, the percentage of the U.S. population over the age of 12 who use Facebook has declined, from 67% to 61% (a decline of some 15 million U.S. users), with a higher drop-off among younger Americans (a decrease in the percentage of U.S. 12- to 34-year-olds who are users from 58% in 2015 to 29% in 2019). [274] [275] The decline coincided with an increase in the popularity of Instagram, which is also owned by Facebook Inc. [274] [275]

Historically, commentators have offered predictions of Facebook's decline or end, based on causes such as a declining user base [276] the legal difficulties of being a closed platform, inability to generate revenue, inability to offer user privacy, inability to adapt to mobile platforms, or Facebook ending itself to present a next generation replacement [277] or Facebook's role in Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. [278]

Population pyramid of Facebook users by age As of 2010 [update] [279]

Demographics

The highest number of Facebook users as of October 2018 are from India and the United States, followed by Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico. [280] Region-wise, the highest number of users are from Asia-Pacific (947 million) followed by Europe (381 million) and US-Canada (242 million). The rest of the world has 750 million users. [281]

Over the 2008-2018 period, the percentage of users under 34 declined to less than half of the total. [265]

Awards

The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007, [282] and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008. [283]

In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" award [284] for the third year in a row. [285]

Censorship

In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China, [286] Iran, [287] Vietnam, [288] Pakistan, [289] Syria, [290] and North Korea. In May 2018, the government of Papua New Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a month while it considered the impact of the website on the country, though no ban has since occurred. [291] In 2019, Facebook announced that influencers are no longer able to promote any vape, tobacco products, or weapons on its platforms. [292]

Facebook's importance and scale has led to criticisms in many domains. Issues include Internet privacy, excessive retention of user information, [293] its facial recognition software, DeepFace [294] [295] its addictive quality [296] and its role in the workplace, including employer access to employee accounts. [297]

Facebook has been criticized for electricity usage, [298] tax avoidance, [299] real-name user requirement policies, [300] censorship [301] [302] and its involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program. [303] According to The Express Tribune, Facebook "avoided billions of dollars in tax using offshore companies". [304]

Facebook is alleged to have harmful psychological effects on its users, including feelings of jealousy [305] [306] and stress, [307] [308] a lack of attention [309] and social media addiction. [310] [311] European antitrust regulator Margrethe Vestager stated that Facebook's terms of service relating to private data were "unbalanced". [312]

Facebook has been criticized for allowing users to publish illegal or offensive material. Specifics include copyright and intellectual property infringement, [313] hate speech, [314] [315] incitement of rape [316] and terrorism, [317] [318] fake news, [319] [320] [321] and crimes, murders, and livestreaming violent incidents. [322] [323] [324] Sri Lanka blocked both Facebook and WhatsApp in May 2019 after anti-Muslim riots, the worst in the country since the Easter Sunday bombing in the same year as a temporary measure to maintain peace in Sri Lanka. [325] [326] Facebook removed 3 billion fake accounts only during the last quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019 [327] in comparison, the social network reports 2.39 billion monthly active users. [327]

In late July 2019, the company announced it was under antitrust investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. [328]

Privacy

Facebook has faced a steady stream of controversies over how it handles user privacy, repeatedly adjusting its privacy settings and policies. [329]

In 2010, the US National Security Agency began taking publicly posted profile information from Facebook, among other social media services. [330]

On November 29, 2011, Facebook settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by failing to keep privacy promises. [331] In August 2013 High-Tech Bridge published a study showing that links included in Facebook messaging service messages were being accessed by Facebook. [332] In January 2014 two users filed a lawsuit against Facebook alleging that their privacy had been violated by this practice. [333]

On June 7, 2018, Facebook announced that a bug had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having their default sharing setting for all new posts set to "public". [334]

On April 4, 2019, half a billion records of Facebook users were found exposed on Amazon cloud servers, containing information about users’ friends, likes, groups, and checked-in locations, as well as names, passwords and email addresses. [335]

The phone numbers of at least 200 million Facebook users were found to be exposed on an open online database in September 2019. They included 133 million US users, 18 million from the UK, and 50 million from users in Vietnam. After removing duplicates, the 419 million records have been reduced to 219 million. The database went offline after TechCrunch contacted the web host. It is thought the records were amassed using a tool that Facebook disabled in April 2018 after the Cambridge Analytica controversy. A Facebook spokeswoman said in a statement: "The dataset is old and appears to have information obtained before we made changes last year. There is no evidence that Facebook accounts were compromised." [336]

Facebook's privacy problems resulted in companies like Viber Media and Mozilla discontinuing advertising on Facebook's platforms. [337] [338]

Racial Bias

Facebook was accused of committing 'systemic' racial bias by EEOC based on the complaints of three rejected candidates and a current employee of the company. The three rejected employees along with the Operational Manager at Facebook as of March 2021 accused the firm of discriminating against Black people. The EEOC has initiated an investigation into the case. [339]

Shadow profiles

A "shadow profile" refers to the data Facebook collects about individuals without their explicit permission. For example, the "like" button that appears on third-party websites allows the company to collect information about an individual's internet browsing habits, even if the individual is not a Facebook user. [340] [341] Data can also be collected by other users. For example, a Facebook user can link their email account to their Facebook to find friends on the site, allowing the company to collect the email addresses of users and non-users alike. [342] Over time, countless data points about an individual are collected any single data point perhaps cannot identify an individual, but together allows the company to form a unique "profile."

This practice has been criticized by those who believe people should be able to opt-out of involuntary data collection. Additionally, while Facebook users have the ability to download and inspect the data they provide to the site, data from the user's "shadow profile" is not included, and non-users of Facebook do not have access to this tool regardless. The company has also been unclear whether or not it is possible for a person to revoke Facebook's access to their "shadow profile." [340]

Cambridge Analytica

Facebook customer Global Science Research sold information on over 87 million Facebook users to Cambridge Analytica, a political data analysis firm led by Alexander Nix. [343] While approximately 270,000 people used the app, Facebook's API permitted data collection from their friends without their knowledge. [344] At first Facebook downplayed the significance of the breach, and suggested that Cambridge Analytica no longer had access. Facebook then issued a statement expressing alarm and suspended Cambridge Analytica. Review of documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that Cambridge Analytica still possessed the data. [345] This was a violation of Facebook's consent decree with the Federal Trade Commission. This violation potentially carried a penalty of $40,000 per occurrence, totaling trillions of dollars. [346]

According to The Guardian both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it published the story. After publication, Facebook claimed that it had been "lied to". On March 23, 2018, The English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner's Office for a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica's London offices, ending a standoff between Facebook and the Information Commissioner over responsibility. [347]

On March 25, Facebook published a statement by Zuckerberg in major UK and US newspapers apologizing over a "breach of trust". [348]

You may have heard about a quiz app built by a university researcher that leaked Facebook data of millions of people in 2014. This was a breach of trust, and I'm sorry we didn't do more at the time. We're now taking steps to make sure this doesn't happen again.

We've already stopped apps like this from getting so much information. Now we're limiting the data apps get when you sign in using Facebook.

We're also investigating every single app that had access to large amounts of data before we fixed this. We expect there are others. And when we find them, we will ban them and tell everyone affected.

Finally, we'll remind you which apps you've given access to your information – so you can shut off the ones you don't want anymore.

Thank you for believing in this community. I promise to do better for you.

On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into the matter. [349] The controversy led Facebook to end its partnerships with data brokers who aid advertisers in targeting users. [329]

On April 24, 2019, Facebook said it could face a fine between $3 billion to $5 billion as the result of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. The agency has been investigating Facebook for possible privacy violations, but has not announced any findings yet. [350]

Facebook also implemented additional privacy controls and settings [351] in part to comply with the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect in May. [352] Facebook also ended its active opposition to the California Consumer Privacy Act. [353]

Some, such as Meghan McCain have drawn an equivalence between the use of data by Cambridge Analytica and the Barack Obama's 2012 campaign, which, according to Investor's Business Daily, "encouraged supporters to download an Obama 2012 Facebook app that, when activated, let the campaign collect Facebook data both on users and their friends." [354] [355] [356] Carol Davidsen, the Obama for America (OFA) former director of integration and media analytics, wrote that "Facebook was surprised we were able to suck out the whole social graph, but they didn't stop us once they realised that was what we were doing." [355] [356] PolitiFact has rated McCain's statements "Half-True", on the basis that "in Obama's case, direct users knew they were handing over their data to a political campaign" whereas with Cambridge Analytica, users thought they were only taking a personality quiz for academic purposes, and while the Obama campaign only used the data "to have their supporters contact their most persuadable friends", Cambridge Analytica "targeted users, friends and lookalikes directly with digital ads." [357]

Breaches

On September 28, 2018, Facebook experienced a major breach in its security, exposing the data of 50 million users. The data breach started in July 2017 and was discovered on September 16. [358] Facebook notified users affected by the exploit and logged them out of their accounts. [359] [360]

In March 2019, Facebook confirmed a password compromise of millions of Facebook lite application users, however in April the company further stated that it was not just limited to Facebook but had also affected millions of Instagram users. The reason cited was the storage of password as plain text instead of encryption which could be read by its employees. [361]

On December 19, 2019, security researcher Bob Diachenko discovered a database containing more than 267 million Facebook user IDs, phone numbers, and names that were left exposed on the web for anyone to access without a password or any other authentication. [362]

In February 2020, Facebook encountered a major security breach in which its official Twitter account was hacked by a Saudi Arabia-based group called "OurMine". The group has a history of actively exposing high-profile social media profiles’ vulnerabilities. [363]

In April 2021, The Guardian reported approximately half a billion users' data had been stolen including birthdates and phone numbers. Facebook alleged it was "old data" from a problem fixed in August 2019 despite the data's having been released a year and a half later only in 2021 it declined to speak with journalists, had apparently not notified regulators, called the problem "unfixable", and said it would not be advising users. [364]

Phone data and activity

After acquiring Onavo in 2013, Facebook used its Onavo Protect virtual private network (VPN) app to collect information on users' web traffic and app usage. This allowed Facebook to monitor its competitors' performance, and motivated Facebook to acquire WhatsApp in 2014. [365] [366] [367] Media outlets classified Onavo Protect as spyware. [368] [369] [370] In August 2018, Facebook removed the app in response to pressure from Apple, who asserted that it violated their guidelines. [371] [372] The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission sued Facebook on December 16, 2020, for "false, misleading or deceptive conduct" in response to the company's use of personal data obtained from Onavo for business purposes in contrast to Onavo's privacy-oriented marketing. [373] [374]

In 2016, Facebook Research launched Project Atlas, offering some users between the ages of 13 and 35 up to $20 per month in exchange for their personal data, including their app usage, web browsing history, web search history, location history, personal messages, photos, videos, emails and Amazon order history. [375] [376] In January 2019, TechCrunch reported on the project. This led Apple to temporarily revoke Facebook's Enterprise Developer Program certificates for one day, preventing Facebook Research from operating on iOS devices and disabling Facebook's internal iOS apps. [376] [377] [378]

Ars Technica reported in April 2018 that the Facebook Android app had been harvesting user data, including phone calls and text messages, since 2015. [379] [380] [381] In May 2018, several Android users filed a class action lawsuit against Facebook for invading their privacy. [382] [383]

In January 2020, Facebook launched the Off-Facebook Activity page, which allows users to see information collected by Facebook about their non-Facebook activities. [384] Washington Post columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that this included what other apps he used on his phone, even while the Facebook app was closed, what other web sites he visited on his phone, and what in-store purchases he made from affiliated businesses, even while his phone was completely off. [385]

Public apologies

The company first apologized for its privacy abuses in 2009. [386]

Facebook apologies have appeared in newspapers, television, blog posts and on Facebook. [387] On March 25, 2018, leading US and UK newspapers published full-page ads with a personal apology from Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN. [388] In May 2010, he apologized for discrepancies in privacy settings. [387]

Previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy settings on one page, which makes it more difficult for third-party apps to access the user's personal information. [329] In addition to publicly apologizing, Facebook has said that it will be reviewing and auditing thousands of apps that display "suspicious activities" in an effort to ensure that this breach of privacy does not happen again. [389] In a 2010 report regarding privacy, a research project stated that not a lot of information is available regarding the consequences of what people disclose online so often what is available are just reports made available through popular media. [390] In 2017, a former Facebook executive went on the record to discuss how social media platforms have contributed to the unraveling of the "fabric of society". [391]

Content

Facebook relies on its users to generate the content that bonds its users to the service. The company has come under criticism both for allowing objectionable content, including conspiracy theories and fringe discourse, [392] and for prohibiting other content that it deems inappropriate.

Vaidhyanathan (2018) Antisocial Media [393] claims that there's no evidence that Cambridge Analytica and similar companies have delivered anything of value to anyone who has paid them, but Facebook is "growing on every continent. And it’s undermining democracy everywhere. Facebook is doing the data analysis internally. Facebook is working directly with campaigns — many of which support authoritarian and nationalist candidates. You don’t need Cambridge Analytica if you have Facebook. The impact of Facebook on democracy is corrosive. . A campaign like Trump’s can issue small, cheap advertisements via platforms like Facebook and Instagram that disappear after a day or get locked forever in Facebook’s servers. That’s bad for transparency. That’s exactly what happened. That story has not echoed as far as the one about Cambridge Analytica and psychographics. But it’s the real story." [394] Facebook has tools that allow an advertiser to profitably target ads "at groups as small as twenty, and then disappear, so they are never examined or debated." These may have made a substantive contribution to Mr. Trump's victory in the 2016 United States presidential election. [395]

It has been criticised as a vector for 'fake news', and has been accused of bearing responsibility for the conspiracy theory that the United States created ISIS, [396] false anti-Rohingya posts being used by Myanmar's military to fuel genocide and ethnic cleansing, [397] [398] enabling climate change denial [399] [400] and Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theorists, [401] and anti-refugee attacks in Germany. [402] [403] [404] The government of the Philippines has also used Facebook as a tool to attack its critics. [405]

In 2017, Facebook partnered with fact checkers from the Poynter Institute's International Fact-Checking Network to identify and mark false content, though most ads from political candidates are exempt from this program. [406] [407] Critics of the program accuse Facebook of not doing enough to remove false information from its website. [408]

Professor Ilya Somin reported that he had been the subject of death threats on Facebook in April 2018 from Cesar Sayoc, who threatened to kill Somin and his family and "feed the bodies to Florida alligators". Somin's Facebook friends reported the comments to Facebook, which did nothing except dispatch automated messages. [409] Sayoc was later arrested for the October 2018 United States mail bombing attempts directed at Democratic politicians.

Facebook has repeatedly amended its content policies. In July 2018, it stated that it would "downrank" articles that its fact-checkers determined to be false, and remove misinformation that incited violence. [410] Facebook stated that content that receives "false" ratings from its fact-checkers can be demonetized and suffer dramatically reduced distribution. Specific posts and videos that violate community standards can be removed on Facebook. [411]

In May 2019, Facebook banned a number of "dangerous" commentators from its platform, including Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson, Paul Nehlen, David Duke, and Laura Loomer, for allegedly engaging in "violence and hate". [412] [413]

In May 2020, Facebook agreed to a preliminary settlement of $52 million to compensate U.S.-based Facebook content moderators for their psychological trauma suffered on the job. [414] [415] Other legal actions around the world, including in Ireland, await settlement. [416]

In September 2020, the Government of Thailand used the Computer Crime Act for the first time, to take action against Facebook and Twitter for ignoring requests to take down content and for not complying to the court orders. [417]

In October 2020, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan urged Mark Zuckerberg, through a letter posted on government's Twitter account, to ban Islamophobic content on Facebook, warning that it encouraged extremism and violence. [418]

InfoWars

Facebook was criticized for allowing InfoWars to publish falsehoods and conspiracy theories. [411] [419] [420] [421] [422] Facebook defended its actions in regards to InfoWars, saying "we just don't think banning Pages for sharing conspiracy theories or false news is the right way to go." [420] Facebook provided only six cases in which it fact-checked content on the InfoWars page over the period September 2017 to July 2018. [411] In 2018 InfoWars falsely claimed that the survivors of the Parkland shooting were "actors". Facebook pledged to remove InfoWars content making the claim, although InfoWars videos pushing the false claims were left up, even though Facebook had been contacted about the videos. [411] Facebook stated that the videos never explicitly called them actors. [411] Facebook also allowed InfoWars videos that shared the Pizzagate conspiracy theory to survive, despite specific assertions that it would purge Pizzagate content. [411] In late July 2018 Facebook suspended the personal profile of InfoWars head Alex Jones for 30 days. [423] In early August 2018, Facebook banned the four most active InfoWars-related pages for hate speech. [424]

Holocaust denial

In July 2018, Zuckerberg said it was unclear whether Holocaust deniers on Facebook intended to deceive others, [411] for which he apologized later the same day. [419] In October 2020, the company announced that it would ban Holocaust denial. [425]

Political manipulation

As a dominant social-web service with massive outreach, Facebook have been used by identified or unindentified political operatives to affect public opinion. Some of these activities have been done in violation of the platform policies, creating "coordinated inauthentic behavior", support or attacks. These activities can be scripted or paid. Various such abusive campaign have been revealed in recent years, best known being the 2016 Russian interference in the USA's presidential election. In 2021, former Facebook analyst within the Spam and Fake Engagement teams, Sophie Zhang, reported more than 25 political subversion operations and criticized the general slow reaction time, oversightless, laissez-faire attitude by Facebook. [426] [427] [428]

General

In 2018, Facebook stated that during 2018 they had identified "coordinated inauthentic behavior" in "many Pages, Groups and accounts created to stir up political debate, including in the US, the Middle East, Russia and the UK." [429]

Campaigns operated by the British intelligence agency unit, called Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group, have broadly fallen into two categories cyber attacks and propaganda efforts. The propaganda efforts utilize "mass messaging" and the "pushing [of] stories" via social media sites like Facebook. [430] [431] Israel's Jewish Internet Defense Force, China's 50 Cent Party and Turkey's AK Trolls also focus their attention on social media platforms like Facebook. [432] [433] [434] [435]

In July 2018, Samantha Bradshaw, co-author of the report from the Oxford Internet Institute (OII) at Oxford University, said that "The number of countries where formally organised social media manipulation occurs has greatly increased, from 28 to 48 countries globally. The majority of growth comes from political parties who spread disinformation and junk news around election periods." [436]

In October 2018, The Daily Telegraph reported that Facebook "banned hundreds of pages and accounts that it says were fraudulently flooding its site with partisan political content – although they came from the United States instead of being associated with Russia." [437]

In December 2018, The Washington Post reported that "Facebook has suspended the account of Jonathon Morgan, the chief executive of a top social media research firm" New Knowledge, "after reports that he and others engaged in an operation to spread disinformation" on Facebook and Twitter during the 2017 United States Senate special election in Alabama. [438] [439]

In January 2019, Facebook said it has removed 783 Iran-linked accounts, pages and groups for engaging in what it called "coordinated inauthentic behaviour". [440]

In May 2019, Tel Aviv-based private intelligence agency Archimedes Group was banned from Facebook for "coordinated inauthentic behavior" after Facebook found fake users in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. [441] Facebook investigations revealed that Archimedes had spent some $1.1 million on fake ads, paid for in Brazilian reais, Israeli shekels and US dollars. [442] Facebook gave examples of Archimedes Group political interference in Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Angola, Niger and Tunisia. [443] The Atlantic Council's Digital Forensic Research Lab said in a report that "The tactics employed by Archimedes Group, a private company, closely resemble the types of information warfare tactics often used by governments, and the Kremlin in particular." [444] [445]

On May 23, 2019, Facebook released its Community Standards Enforcement Report highlighting that it has identified several fake accounts through artificial intelligence and human monitoring. In a period of six months, October 2018-March 2019, the social media website removed a total of 3.39 billion fake accounts. The number of fake accounts was reported to be more than 2.4 billion real people on the platform. [446]

In July 2019, Facebook advanced its measures to counter deceptive political propaganda and other abuse of its services. The company removed more than 1,800 accounts and pages that were being operated from Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and Honduras. [447]

On October 30, 2019, Facebook deleted several accounts of the employees working at the Israeli NSO Group, stating that the accounts were "deleted for not following our terms". The deletions came after WhatsApp sued the Israeli surveillance firm for targeting 1,400 devices with spyware. [448]

In 2020, Facebook helped found American Edge, an anti-regulation lobbying firm to fight anti-trust probes. [449]

The Thailand government is forcing Facebook to take down a Facebook group called Royalist Marketplace with 1 million members following potentially illegal posts shared. The authority also threatened the Facebook representative of facing criminal proceeding. In response, Facebook is planning to take legal action against the Thai government for suppression of freedom of expression and violation of human rights. [450]

In February 2021, Facebook removed the main page of the Myanmar military, after two protesters were shot and killed during the anti-coup protests. Facebook said that the page breached its guidelines that prohibit the incitement of violence. [451] On February 25, Facebook announced to ban all accounts of the Myanmar military, along with the "Tatmadaw-linked commercial entities". Citing the "exceptionally severe human rights abuses and the clear risk of future military-initiated violence in Myanmar", the tech giant also implemented the move on its subsidiary, Instagram. [452]

In March 2021, The Wall Street Journal 's editorial board criticized Facebook's decision to fact-check its op-ed titled "We’ll Have Herd Immunity by April" written by surgeon Marty Makary, calling it "counter-opinion masquerading as fact checking." [453]

Facebook guidelines allow users to call for the death of public figures, they also allow praise of mass killers and ‘violent non-state actors’ in some situations. [454] [455]

In 2021, former Facebook analyst within the Spam and Fake Engagement teams, Sophie Zhang, reported on more than 25 political subversion operations she uncovered while in Facebook, and the general laissez-faire by the private enterprise. [426] [427] [428]

Russian interference

In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted 13 Russian nationals and three Russian organizations for "engaging in operations to interfere with U.S. political and electoral processes, including the 2016 presidential election." [456] [457] [458]

Mueller contacted Facebook subsequently to the company's disclosure that it had sold more than $100,000 worth of ads to a company (Internet Research Agency, owned by Russian billionaire and businessman Yevgeniy Prigozhin) with links to the Russian intelligence community before the 2016 United States presidential election. [459] [460] In September 2017, Facebook's chief security officer Alex Stamos wrote the company "found approximately $100,000 in ad spending from June 2015 to May 2017 — associated with roughly 3,000 ads — that was connected to about 470 inauthentic accounts and Pages in violation of our policies. Our analysis suggests these accounts and Pages were affiliated with one another and likely operated out of Russia." [461] Clinton and Trump campaigns spent $81 million on Facebook ads. [462]

The company pledged full cooperation in Mueller's investigation, and provided all information about the Russian advertisements. [463] Members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees have claimed that Facebook had withheld information that could illuminate the Russian propaganda campaign. [464] Russian operatives have used Facebook polarize the American public discourses, organizing both Black Lives Matter rallies [465] [466] and anti-immigrant rallies on U.S. soil, [467] as well as anti-Clinton rallies [468] and rallies both for and against Donald Trump. [469] [470] Facebook ads have also been used to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims by simultaneously sending contrary messages to different users based on their political and demographic characteristics in order to sow discord. [471] [472] [473] Zuckerberg has stated that he regrets having dismissed concerns over Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. [474]

Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner, who befriended Zuckerberg [475] between 2009 and 2011 had Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter. [476]

In January 2019, Facebook removed 289 Pages and 75 coordinated accounts linked to the Russian state-owned news agency Sputnik which had misrepresented themselves as independent news or general interest Pages. [477] [478] Facebook later identified and removed an additional 1,907 accounts linked to Russia found to be engaging in "coordinated inauthentic behaviour". [479] In 2018, a UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) select committee report had criticised Facebook for its reluctance to investigate abuse of its platform by the Russian government, and for downplaying the extent of the problem, referring to the company as 'digital gangsters'. [480] [481] [482]

"Democracy is at risk from the malicious and relentless targeting of citizens with disinformation and personalised ‘dark adverts’ from unidentifiable sources, delivered through the major social media platforms we use every day," Damian Collins, DCMS Committee Chair [482]

In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge, which is behind one of the Senate reports on Russian social media election interference, "was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones in Alabama. The New York Times, when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its fabrications. " [483] [484]

Anti-Rohingya propaganda

In 2018, Facebook took down 536 Facebook pages, 17 Facebook groups, 175 Facebook accounts, and 16 Instagram accounts linked to the Myanmar military. Collectively these were followed by over 10 million people. [485] The New York Times reported that: [486]

after months of reports about anti-Rohingya propaganda on Facebook, the company acknowledged that it had been too slow to act in Myanmar. By then, more than 700,000 Rohingya had fled the country in a year, in what United Nations officials called "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing."

Anti-Muslim propaganda and Hindu nationalism in India

A 2019 book titled The Real Face of Facebook in India, co-authored by the journalists Paranjoy Guha Thakurta and Cyril Sam, alleged that Facebook helped enable and benefited from the rise of Narendra Modi's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in India. [487]

Ankhi Das, Facebook's policy director for India and South and Central Asia, apologized publicly in August 2020 for sharing a Facebook post that called Muslims in India a "degenerate community". She said she shared the post "to reflect my deep belief in celebrating feminism and civic participation". [488] She is reported to have prevented action by Facebook against anti-Muslim content [489] [490] and supported the BJP in internal Facebook messages. [491] [492]

In 2020, Facebook executives overrode their employees' recommendations that the BJP politician T. Raja Singh should be banned from the site for hate speech and rhetoric that could lead to violence. Singh had said on Facebook that Rohingya Muslim immigrants should be shot and had threatened to destroy mosques. Current and former Facebook employees told The Wall Street Journal that the decision was part of a pattern of favoritism by Facebook toward the BJP as it seeks more business in India. [490] Facebook also took no action after BJP politicians made posts accusing Muslims of intentionally spreading COVID-19, an employee said. [493]

The Delhi Assembly is investigating whether Facebook bears blame for 2020 religious riots in the city. [494] [495]

Company governance

Early Facebook investor and former Zuckerberg mentor Roger McNamee described Facebook as having "the most centralized decision-making structure I have ever encountered in a large company." [496] Nathan Schneider, a professor of media studies at the University of Colorado Boulder argued for transforming Facebook into a platform cooperative owned and governed by the users. [497]

Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes states that CEO Mark Zuckerberg has too much power, that the company is now a monopoly, and that, as a result, it should be split into multiple smaller companies. Hughes called for the breakup of Facebook in an op-ed on The New York Times. Hughes says he's concerned that Zuckerberg has surrounded himself with a team that doesn't challenge him and that as a result, it's the U.S. government's job to hold him accountable and curb his "unchecked power." [498] Hughes also said that "Mark's power is unprecedented and un-American." [499] Several U.S. politicians agree with Hughes. [500] EU Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager has stated that splitting Facebook should only be done as "a remedy of the very last resort", and that splitting Facebook would not solve Facebook's underlying problems. [501]

Litigation

The company has been subject to repeated litigation. [502] [503] [504] [505] Its most prominent case addressed allegations that Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004. [506] [507] [508]

On March 6, 2018 BlackBerry sued Facebook and its Instagram and WhatsApp subdivision for ripping off key features of its messaging app. [509]

In 2019 British solicitors representing a bullied Syrian schoolboy, sued Facebook over false claims. They claimed that Facebook protected prominent figures from scrutiny instead of removing content that violates its rules and that the special treatment was financially driven. [510] [511]

In October 2018 a Texan woman sued Facebook, claiming she had been recruited into the sex trade at the age of 15 by a man who "friended" her on the social media network. Facebook responded that it works both internally and externally to ban sex traffickers. [512] [513]

The Federal Trade Commission and a coalition of New York state and 47 other state and regional governments filed separate suits against Facebook on December 9, 2020, seeking antitrust action based on its acquisitions of Instagram and WhatsUp among other companies, calling these practices as anticompetitive. The suits also assert that in acquiring these products, they weakened their privacy measures for their users. The suits, besides other fines, seek to unwind the acquisitions from Facebook. [514] [515]

Definers Public Affairs

In October 2017, Facebook expanded its work with Definers Public Affairs, a PR firm that had originally been hired to monitor press coverage of the company to address concerns primarily regarding Russian meddling, then mishandling of user data by Cambridge Analytica, hate speech on Facebook, and calls for regulation. [516] Company spokesman Tim Miller stated that a goal for tech firms should be to "have positive content pushed out about your company and negative content that's being pushed out about your competitor". Definers claimed that George Soros was the force behind what appeared to be a broad anti-Facebook movement, and created other negative media, along with America Rising, that was picked up by larger media organisations like Breitbart. [516] [517] Facebook cut ties with the agency in late 2018, following public outcry over their association. [518]

Transcribing user audio

On August 13, 2019, it was revealed that Facebook had enlisted hundreds of contractors to create and obtain transcripts of the audio messages of users. [519] [520] [521] This was especially common of Facebook Messenger, where the contractors frequently listened to and transcribed voice messages of users. [521] After this was first reported on by Bloomberg News, Facebook released a statement confirming the report to be true, [520] but also stated that the monitoring program was now suspended. [520]

Scope

A commentator in The Washington Post noted that Facebook constitutes a "massive depository of information that documents both our reactions to events and our evolving customs with a scope and immediacy of which earlier historians could only dream". [522] Especially for anthropologists, social researchers, and social historians—and subject to proper preservation and curation—the website "will preserve images of our lives that are vastly crisper and more nuanced than any ancestry record in existence". [522]

Economy

Economists have noted that Facebook offers many non-rivalrous services that benefit as many users as are interested without forcing users to compete with each other. By contrast, most goods are available to a limited number of users. E.g., if one user buys a phone, no other user can buy that phone. Three areas add the most economic impact: platform competition, the market place and user behavior data. [523]

Facebook began to reduce its carbon impact after Greenpeace attacked it for its long-term reliance on coal and resulting carbon footprint. [524] In 2021 Facebook announced that their global operations are supported by 100 percent renewable energy and they have reached net zero emissions, a goal set in 2018. [525] [526]

Facebook provides a development platform for many social gaming, communication, feedback, review, and other applications related to online activities. This platform spawned many businesses and added thousands of jobs to the global economy. Zynga Inc., a leader in social gaming, is an example of such a business. An econometric analysis found that Facebook's app development platform added more than 182,000 jobs in the U.S. economy in 2011. The total economic value of the added employment was about $12 billion. [527]

Society

Facebook was one of the first large-scale social networks. In The Facebook Effect, David Kirkpatrick stated that Facebook's structure makes it difficult to replace, because of its "network effects". [ neutrality is disputed] As of 2016, it is estimated that 44 percent of the US population gets news through Facebook. [528]

Emotional health

A 2020 experimental study in the American Economic Review found that deactivating Facebook led to increased subjective well-being. [529]

Studies have associated social networks with positive [530] and negative impacts [531] [532] [533] [534] [535] on emotional health. Studies have associated Facebook with feelings of envy, often triggered by vacation and holiday photos. Other triggers include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such feelings leave people dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook, [536] [537] and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about themselves following an increase in time on Facebook. [537] [538] [539]

Professor Larry D. Rosen stated that teenagers on Facebook exhibit more narcissistic tendencies, while young adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania and aggressiveness. Positive effects included signs of "virtual empathy" towards online friends and helping introverted persons learn social skills. [540]

In a blog post in December 2017, the company highlighted research that has shown "passively consuming" the News Feed, as in reading but not interacting, left users with negative feelings afterwards, whereas interacting with messages pointed to improvements in well-being. [541]

Politics

In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). [542] In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the country's official news agency, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook. [543]

During the Arab Spring many journalists claimed that Facebook played a major role in the 2011 Egyptian revolution. [544] [545] On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all Khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. According to Mashable, [ unreliable source? ] in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook became the primary tool for connecting protesters and led the Egyptian government to ban Facebook, Twitter and other websites on January 26 [546] then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt on January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Hosni Mubarak to resign.

In a Bahraini uprising that started on February 14, 2011, Facebook was utilized by the Bahraini regime and regime loyalists to identify, capture and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. A 20-year-old woman named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a protester using Facebook and imprisoned. [547]

In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB PAC. [548] In an email to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said "Facebook Political Action Committee will give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the world more open and connected." [549]

During the Syrian civil war, the YPG, a libertarian army for Rojava recruited westerners through Facebook in its fight against ISIL. [550] Dozens joined its ranks. The Facebook page's name "The Lions of Rojava" comes from a Kurdish saying which translates as "A lion is a lion, whether it's a female or a male", reflecting the organization's feminist ideology. [551]

In recent years, Facebook's News Feed algorithms have been identified as a cause of political polarization, for which it has been criticized. [552] [553] It has likewise been accused of amplifying the reach of 'fake news' and extreme viewpoints, as when it may have enabled conditions which led to the 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis. [554] [555]

Facebook first played a role in the American political process in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary. Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. [556] [557] [558] Facebook users took part in debate groups on specific topics, voter registration and message questions. [559]

Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part which measured responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates. [560] A poll by CBS News, UWIRE and The Chronicle of Higher Education claimed to illustrate how the "Facebook effect" had affected youthful voters, increasing voting rates, support of political candidates, and general involvement. [561]

The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, connected hundreds of millions of people. By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message. [562] [563] By the 2016 election, political advertising to specific groups had become normalized. Facebook offered the most sophisticated targeting and analytics platform. [564] ProPublica noted that their system enabled advertisers to direct their pitches to almost 2,300 people who expressed interest in the topics of "Jew hater," "How to burn Jews," or, "History of 'why Jews ruin the world". [565]

Facebook has used several initiatives to encourage its users to register to vote and vote. An experiment in 2012 involved showing Facebook users pictures of their friends who reported that they had voted users who were shown the pictures were about 2% more likely to report that they had also voted compared to the control group, which was not encouraged to vote. [566] In 2020, Facebook announced the goal of helping four million voters register in the US, saying that it had registered 2.5 million by September. [567]

The Cambridge Analytica data scandal offered another example of the perceived attempt to influence elections. [568] [569] The Guardian claimed that Facebook knew about the security breach for two years, but did nothing to stop it until it became public. [570]

Facebook banned political ads to prevent the manipulation of voters in the US's November's election. However, industry experts suggested that there are several other ways for misinformation to reach voters on social media platforms and blocking political ads will not serve as a proven solution to the problem. [571]

India

Ahead of the 2019 general elections in India, Facebook has removed 103 pages, groups and accounts on Facebook and Instagram platforms originating from Pakistan. Facebook said its investigation found a Pakistani military link, along with a mix of real accounts of ISPR employees, and a network of fake accounts created by them that have been operating military fan pages, general interest pages but were posting content about Indian politics while trying to conceal their identity. [572] Owing to the same reasons, Facebook also removed 687 pages and accounts of Congress because of coordinated inauthentic behavior on the platform. [573]

Culture

Facebook and Zuckerberg have been the subject of music, books, film and television. The 2010 film The Social Network, directed by David Fincher and written by Aaron Sorkin, stars Jesse Eisenberg as Zuckerberg and went on to win three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes.

In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year. [574] In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend", defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking site such as Facebook". [575]

Internet.org

In August 2013, Facebook founded Internet.org in collaboration with six other technology companies to plan and help build affordable Internet access for underdeveloped and developing countries. [576] The service, called Free Basics, includes various low-bandwidth applications such as AccuWeather, BabyCenter, BBC News, ESPN, and Bing. [577] [578] There was severe opposition to Internet.org in India, where the service started in partnership with Reliance Communications in 2015 was banned a year later by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI). In 2018, Zuckerberg claimed that "Internet.org efforts have helped almost 100 million people get access to the internet who may not have had it otherwise." [577]

Environment

Facebook announced in 2021 that it will make an effort to stop disinformation about climate change. The company will use George Mason University, Yale Program on Climate Change Communication and the University of Cambridge as sources of information. The company will expand its information hub on climate to 16 countries. Users in others countries will be directed to the site of the United Nations Environment Programme for information. [579]


U.S. Intervention in Latin America

Teddy's Legacy

Main business street, Domingo City, San Domingo, c. 1901. The Dominican
Republic was another site of U.S. intervention in the early 1900s.

Time line of U.S.
intervention in
Latin America

Text (plus some
background information)

Between the end of the Spanish-American War and the dawn of the Great Depression, the United States sent troops to Latin American countries thirty-two times. It used the Roosevelt Corollary, or addition, to the Monroe Doctrine to justify intervention. In the corollary, Teddy Roosevelt proclaimed that the United States, because it was a "civilized nation," had the right to stop "chronic wrongdoing" throughout the Western Hemisphere.

"Any country whose people conduct themselves well can count upon our hearty friendship," he said. "Chronic wrongdoing, however, . . . may force the United States to exercise an international police power." Teddy didn't hesitate to use this "police power" to strengthen his country, but he was always careful not to upset the balance of world power.

William Howard Taft, former governor of the Philippines, followed Roosevelt into the White House. Taft believed in economic expansion, and he introduced a policy called "dollar diplomacy." This policy used diplomacy to advance and protect American businesses in other countries. Taft employed Roosevelt's corollary in Nicaragua and other Latin American countries to protect American investments.

Smaller map of
Nicaragua with
geographical facts

"Commodore"
Cornelius Vanderbilt

More about William
Walker, including a
picture

American businesses had been active in Nicaragua since the 1850s. The lush country attracted American fruit growers and mining companies. Others believed that Nicaragua offered the best site for a canal, and they invested in land. Cornelius Vanderbilt started a company that transported passengers between New York and San Francisco via the Nicaraguan jungle. Shortly after Commodore Perry opened Japan, Vanderbilt plotted to take control of Nicaragua.

With Vanderbilt's help, a young adventurer named William Walker set out with fifty-seven followers to conquer Nicaragua. A short, freckled man with sharp green eyes, Walker formed an alliance with a group of local rebels and defeated the Nicaraguan forces. He proclaimed himself "commander in chief," and soon thousands of Americans rushed into the country. Many Americans wanted the United States to assume direct control of Nicaragua. The government, however, was afraid to upset the fragile balance between "free" and "slave" territories.

Walker eventually quarreled with Vanderbilt about the transit company, and soon another revolution drove him from power. In 1860 Walker died before a firing squad. American economic involvement in Nicaragua lived on.

General information
about Nicaragua:

Nicaraguans confidently expected the canal, and they gladly accepted loans and payments based on its eventual construction. By 1909 the United States-Nicaraguan Concession was largest American company in Nicaragua. That year the Concession's chief legal counsel, Philander C. Knox, resigned to become Taft's Secretary of State. When Nicaragua's ruler cancelled an agreement with one American business and threatened the Concession, the company organized another revolution. Adolfo Diaz, a Concession employee, became the new president. Taft quickly recognized the Diaz government.

When still another revolt threatened Diaz, Taft invoked the corollary and ordered American marines to suppress the rebellion. Then he and Knox worked out a plan to collect the money that Nicaragua owed to foreign investors. Under the plan, American banks took control of Nicaragua's customs collection. They applied the money they collected directly to the country's debt. The marines remained in Nicaragua's capital to serve as "international police" and prevent any further revolts. Except for a short period in 1925, they stayed for 21 years.

The End of an Era

The two decades that sandwiched the turning of the century enclosed a turning point in American history. Despite George Washington's advice to the contrary, the years saw American interests scatter across the globe. America had flexed its muscles, and the world had cowered. But the ease with which America gained its new possessions obscured the responsibilities that came with them. Dollar diplomacy would soon drag a reluctant America into the muddy trenches of the Western Front. The "Open Door" welcomed a series of squabbles that later erupted in a mushroom cloud. But few in that innocent era could foresee such extraordinary events. Most believed that America was simply following its natural order, its destiny.


Obama, Hitler, And Exploding The Biggest Lie In History

Numerous commentators have raised alarming comparisons between America’s recent economic foibles and Argentina’s fall "from breadbasket to basket case." The U.S. pursues a similar path with her economy increasingly ensnared under the growing nexus of government control. Resources are redistributed for vote-buying welfare schemes, patronage style earmarks, and graft by unelected bureaucrats, quid pro quo with unions, issue groups and legions of lobbyists.

In Argentina, everyone acknowledges that fascism, state capitalism, corporatism – whatever – reflects very leftwing ideology. Eva Peron remains a liberal icon. President Obama’s Fabian policies (Keynesian economics) promise similar ends. His proposed infrastructure bank is just the latest gyration of corporatism. Why then are fascists consistently portrayed as conservatives?

In the Thirties, intellectuals smitten by progressivism considered limited, constitutional governance anachronistic. The Great Depression had apparently proven capitalism defunct. The remaining choice had narrowed between communism and fascism. Hitler was about an inch to the right of Stalin. Western intellectuals infatuated with Marxism thus associated fascism with the Right.

Later, Marxists from the Frankfurt School popularized this prevailing sentiment. Theodor Adorno in The Authoritarian Personality devised the "F" scale to demean conservatives as latent fascists. The label "fascist" has subsequently meant anyone liberals seek to ostracize or discredit.

Fascism is an amorphous ideology mobilizing an entire nation (Mussolini, Franco and Peron) or race (Hitler) for a common purpose. Leaders of industry, science, education, the arts and politics combine to shepherd society in an all encompassing quest. Hitler’s premise was a pure Aryan Germany capable of dominating Europe.

While he feinted right, Hitler and Stalin were natural bedfellows. Hitler mimicked Lenin’s path to totalitarian tyranny, parlaying crises into power. Nazis despised Marxists not over ideology, but because they had betrayed Germany in World War I and Nazis found it unconscionable that German communists yielded fealty to Slavs in Moscow.

The National Socialist German Workers Party staged elaborate marches with uniformed workers calling one another "comrade" while toting tools the way soldiers shoulder rifles. The bright red Nazi flag symbolized socialism in a "classless, casteless" Germany (white represents Aryanism). Fascist central planning was not egalitarian, but it divvied up economic rewards very similarly to communism: party membership and partnering with the state.

Where communists generally focused on class, Nazis fixated on race. Communists view life through the prism of a perpetual workers’ revolution. National Socialists used race as a metaphor to justify their nation’s engagement in an existential struggle.

As many have observed, substituting "Jews" for "capitalists" exposes strikingly similar thinking. But communists frequently hated Jews too and Hitler also abhorred capitalists, or "plutocrats" in Nazi speak. From afar, Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany each reeked of plutocratic oligarchy. Both were false utilitarian Utopias that in practice merely empowered dictators.

The National Socialist German Workers Party is only Right if you are hopelessly Left. Or, ascribe to Marxist eschatology perceiving that history marches relentlessly towards the final implementation of socialist Utopia. Marx predicted state capitalism as the last desperate redoubt against the inevitable rise of the proletariat. The Soviets thus saw Nazis as segues to communism.

Interestingly, almost everywhere Marxism triumphed: Russia, China, Cuba, Vietnam, etc., all skipped the capitalist phase Marx thought pivotal. Instead, they slid straight from pre-industrial feudal conditions into communism which essentially entailed reversion back to feudalism supplanting the traditional aristocracy with party cronyism – before dissolving into corrupted variants of state capitalism economically similar to fascism.

As usual, Marx got it backwards.

It’s also ironic that even as orthodox Marxism collapsed due to economic paralysis, cultural Marxism predicated on race, sex and identity politics thrives in "Capitalist" America. The multiculturalists substituted race where the Soviets and Maoists saw only class. America’s civic crusade has become political correctness, aka cultural Marxism, preoccupied with race. Socialism wheels around again.

While political correctness as manifest in the West is very anti-Nazi and those opposing multiculturalism primarily populate the Right, it’s false to confuse fascism with conservatism. Coupling negatives is not necessarily positive. Because the Nazis would likely detest something that conservatives also dislike indicates little harmony. Ohio State hates Michigan. Notre Dame does too, but Irish fans rarely root for the Buckeyes.

America’s most fascistic elements are ultra leftwing organizations like La Raza or the Congressional Black Caucus. These racial nationalists seek gain not through merit, but through the attainment of government privileges. What’s the difference between segregation and affirmative action? They are identical phenomena harnessing state auspices to impose racialist dogma.

The Nation of Islam and other Afrocentric movements, like the Nazis, even celebrate their own perverse racist mythology. Are Louis Farrakhan and Jeremiah Wright conservatives? Is Obama?

Racism does not exclusively plague the Right. Many American bigots manned the Left: ex-Klansman Hugo Black had an extremely left wing Supreme Court record, George Wallace was a New Deal style liberal – he just wanted welfare and social programs controlled by states. Communists always persecute minorities whenever in power.

The Nazis’ anti-Semitism derived indirectly from Karl Marx, who despite Jewish ancestry was deeply anti-Semitic. Bankers and other capitalists were disproportionately Jewish. Elsewhere, Jews played prominent roles. Before falling under Hitler’s sway, Mussolini’s inner circle was overly Jewish. Peron was the first leader to let Jews hold public office in Argentina. Franco, a Marana, welcomed Jews back into Spain for the first time since 1492 and famously thwarted Hitler by harboring Jewish refugees.

Very little of Hitler’s domestic activity was even remotely right wing. Europe views Left and Right differently, but here, free markets, limited constitutional government, family, church and tradition are the bedrocks of conservatism. The Nazis had a planned economy eradicated federalism in favor of centralized government considered church and family as competitors and disavowed tradition wishing to restore Germany’s pre-Christian roots.

Despite Democrats’ pretensions every election, patriotism is clearly a conservative trait so Nazi foreign policy could be vaguely right wing, but how did Hitler’s aggression differ from Stalin’s? The peace movement evidenced liberals being duped as "useful idiots" more than pacifistic purity. Note the Left's insistence on neutrality during the Hitler/Stalin pact and their urgent switch to militarism once Germany attacked.

After assuming power, Nazis strongly advocated "law and order." Previously, they were antagonistic thugs, which mirrored the communists’ ascension. The Nazis outlawed unions perceiving them as competitors for labor’s loyalties, i.e. for precisely the same reason workers’ paradises like Communist China and Soviet Russia disallowed unions. To Nazis, the state sustained workers’ needs.

Even issues revealing similarity to American conservatism could also describe Stalin, Mao and many communists. This is not to suggest liberals and fascists are indistinguishable, but a fair assessment clearly shows if any similarities appear with American politics they reside more on the Left than Right.

On many issues the Nazis align quite agreeably with liberals. The Nazis enforced strict gun control, which made their agenda possible and highlights the necessity of an armed populace.

The Nazis separated church and state to marginalize religion’s influence. Hitler despised biblical morality and bourgeois (middle class) values. Crosses were ripped from the public square in favor of swastikas. Prayer in school was abolished and worship confined to churches. Church youth groups were forcibly absorbed into the Hitler Youth.

Hitler extolled public education, even banning private schools and instituting "a fundamental reconstruction of our whole national education program" controlled by Berlin. Similar to liberals’ cradle to career ideal, the Nazis established state administered early childhood development programs "The comprehension of the concept of the State must be striven for by the school as early as the beginning of understanding."

Foreshadowing Michelle Obama, "The State is to care for elevating national health." Nanny State intrusions reflect that persons are not sovereign, but belong to the state. Hitler even sought to outlaw meat after the war blaming Germany's health problems on the capitalist (i.e. Jewish) food industry. The Nazis idealized public service and smothered private charity with public programs.

Hitler’s election platform included "an expansion on a large scale of old age welfare." Nazi propaganda proclaimed, "No one shall go hungry! No one shall be cold!" Germany had universal healthcare and demanded that "the state be charged first with providing the opportunity for a livelihood." Obama would relish such a "jobs" program.

Nazi Germany was the fullest culmination of Margaret Sanger’s eugenic vision. She was the founder of Planned Parenthood, which changed its name from the American Birth Control Society after the holocaust surfaced. Although Nazi eugenics clearly differed from liberals’ abortion arguments today, that wasn’t necessarily true for their progressive forbears.

Germany was first to enact environmentalist economic policies promoting sustainable development and regulating pollution. The Nazis bought into Rousseau's romanticized primitive man fantasies. Living "authentically" in environs unspoiled by capitalist industry was almost as cherished as pure Aryan lineage.

National Socialist economics were socialist, obviously, imposing top-down economic planning and social engineering. It was predicated on volkisch populism combining a Malthusian struggle for existence with a fetish for the "organic." Like most socialists, wealth was thought static and "the common good supersede[d] the private good" in a Darwinist search for "applied biology" to boost greater Germany.

The Nazis distrusted markets and abused property rights, even advocating "confiscation of war profits" and "nationalization of associated industries." Their platform demanded, "Communalization of the great warehouses" (department stores) and presaging modern set aside quotas on account of race or politics, "utmost consideration of all small firms in contracts with the State."

Nazi Germany progressively dominated her economy. Although many businesses were nominally private, the state determined what was produced in what quantities and at what prices. First, they unleashed massive inflation to finance their prolific spending on public works, welfare and military rearmament. They then enforced price and wage controls to mask currency debasement’s harmful impact. This spawned shortages as it must, so Berlin imposed rationing. When that failed, Albert Speer assumed complete power over production schedules, distribution channels and allowable profits.

Working for personal ends instead of the collective was as criminal in Nazi Germany as Soviet Russia. Norman Thomas, quadrennial Socialist Party presidential candidate, saw the correlation clearly, "both the communist and fascist revolutions definitely abolished laissez-faire capitalism in favor of one or another kind and degree of state capitalism. . . In no way was Hitler the tool of big business. He was its lenient master. So was Mussolini except that he was weaker."

Mussolini recognized, "Fascism entirely agrees with Mr. Maynard Keynes, despite the latter’s prominent position as a Liberal. In fact, Mr. Keynes’ excellent little book, The End of Laissez-Faire (l926) might, so far as it goes, serve as a useful introduction to fascist economics." Keynes saw the similarities too, admitting his theories, "can be much easier adapted to the conditions of a totalitarian state than . . . a large degree of laissez-faire." Hitler built the autobahn, FDR the TVA. Propaganda notwithstanding, neither rejuvenated their economies.

FDR admired Mussolini because "the trains ran on time" and Stalin’s five year plans, but was jealous of Hitler whose economic tinkering appeared more successful than the New Deal. America wasn’t ready for FDR’s blatantly fascist Blue Eagle business model and the Supreme Court overturned several other socialist designs. The greatest dissimilarity between FDR and fascists was he enjoyed less success transforming society because the Constitution obstructed him.

Even using Republicans as proxies, there was little remotely conservative about fascism. Hitler and Mussolini were probably to the right of our left-leaning media and education establishments, but labeling Tea Partiers as fascists doesn’t indict the Right. It indicts those declaring so as radically Left.


Effects of Career Duration, Concussion History, and Playing Position on White Matter Microstructure and Functional Neural Recruitment in Former College and Professional Football Athletes

Purpose To better understand the relationship between exposure to concussive and subconcussive head impacts, white matter integrity, and functional task-related neural activity in former U.S. football athletes. Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2013, 61 cognitively unimpaired former collegiate and professional football players (age range, 52-65 years) provided informed consent to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants were stratified across three crossed factors: career duration, concussion history, and primary playing position. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) percent signal change (PSC) were measured with diffusion-weighted and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Analyses of variance of FA and BOLD PSC were used to determine main or interaction effects of the three factors. Results A significant interaction between career duration and concussion history was observed former college players with more than three concussions had lower FA in a broadly distributed area of white matter compared with those with zero to one concussion (t29 = 2.774 adjusted P = .037), and the opposite was observed for former professional players (t29 = 3.883 adjusted P = .001). A separate interaction between concussion history and position was observed: Nonspeed players with more than three concussions had lower FA in frontal white matter compared with those with zero to one concussion (t25 = 3.861 adjusted P = .002). Analysis of working memory-task BOLD PSC revealed a similar interaction between concussion history and position (all adjusted P < .004). Overall, former players with lower FA tended to have lower BOLD PSC across three levels of a working memory task. Conclusion Career duration and primary playing position seem to modify the effects of concussion history on white matter structure and neural recruitment. The differences in brain structure and function were observed in the absence of clinical impairment, which suggested that multimodal imaging may provide early markers of onset of traumatic neurodegenerative disease. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

Figures

Axial MR images show results…

Axial MR images show results of tract-based spatial statistics analysis of white matter…

Box-and-whisker plots show mean FA…

Box-and-whisker plots show mean FA values from the significant clusters for the interaction…

Box-and-whisker plots show mean FA…

Box-and-whisker plots show mean FA values from the significant clusters for the interaction…

Axial functional MR images show…

Axial functional MR images show analysis of the interaction between concussion history and…

Box-and-whisker plots show mean PSC…

Box-and-whisker plots show mean PSC from the significant clusters for the interaction of…


List of Every DSM-5 Diagnosis

Mental illnesses are health conditions that involve changes in thinking, emotion or behavior—or a combination of the three. They’re connected with distress and/or problems functioning in social settings, on the job or during family activities. According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), one in five adults lives with a mental disorder, and one in 24 has a mental illness that is considered serious. Some psychiatric illnesses may be temporary, occur occasionally, and never return again. Other disorders that people continuously live with are called chronic mental illnesses. One-half of the individuals with chronic mental illnesses are diagnosed by the age of 14.

Statistics from the APA show that suicide is the tenth leading cause of death for every age category and is even more common than homicide. Substance use disorder is found in one of a dozen people.

There are many misconceptions about mental illnesses and stigmas attached to the conditions. Many people with mental illness find that these stigmas and the discrimination they experience from other people who don’t understand or have the knowledge about the illnesses can make it more difficult for them and cause challenges in their recovery. For instance, people with mental illnesses are not more violent than individuals without a mental health disorder. The truth is that people with mental illnesses are 10 times more likely to be the victims of violent crime.
The following are the most common mental health disorders, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition (DSM-5), which is published by the APA. The APA uses standard criteria to classify mental disorders.


In general (numbers vary from one lab to the next), a blood test value of over 50 for the ALT is considered elevated, not within the normal range. For AST, the cut-off point is 40 (anything above is elevated).

Again, realize that these cut-off points will vary with different testing labs.

What are the AST and ALT values that are associated with fatty liver disease, the common hepatitis viruses, liver cancer and other liver disease?

“AST and ALT levels vary greatly depending on the liver disease and the individual patient,” says Jeffrey Fine, MD, chief of gastroenterology at the Medical Surgical Clinic of Irving.

“In fatty liver disease for example, the AST and ALT values are usually twice the normal range or higher.

“They can be as high as 10 times normal. They can also be up to 10 times the normal range in common hepatitis cases like in hepatitis A, B and C.”

What about cancer?

“With liver cancer, the AST and ALT levels could be mild to normal because those cells are burnt out, so there is no AST or ALT leak,” says Dr. Fine.

Autoimmune Disease

“In autoimmune liver disease, which is more common among women, the AST and ALT levels can be three to six times normal.”

How to protect yourself against liver disease

– Avoid drinking alcohol, or drink only occasionally.

– Exercise regularly, and this includes strength training.

– Avoid processed foods as much as possible.

– Avoid unhealthy ingredients like trans fats and preservatives.

– Lose weight if you’re overweight. If you’re not overweight, don’t gain excess weight.


Watch the video: The History of Volvo R u0026 Polestar High Performance Cars (November 2021).